References

Summa Theologica, excerpted in Introduction to St. Thomas Aquinas. Edited by Anton C.Pegis. New York The Modern Library. Irwin, T. 1992. Aristotle's first Principles. Oxford Clarendon Press. Jacobs, J. 1998. Taking Ethical Disability Seriously. In RATIO. September 1998, pp. 141-158. Blackwell Publishers. Lisska, A. 1996. Aquinas's Theory of Natural Law An Analytical Reconstruction. New York Oxford University Press. Maimonides. 1975. Eight Chapters in Ethical Writings of...

Info

To turn then to Alfarabi, he was the founder of a political and religious philosophy which in essence was adopted by his medieval Islamic philosopher successors. Sadly, however, we know so little about his personal life and his attitudes towards the then existing political situation. Born around 870 in Transoxania, of Turkish ancestry, he came (at an unknown date) to Baghdad, the cosmopolitan capital of the Abbasid caliphate, and lived there until 941. In Baghdad he was associated with the...

The Doctrine of Mtmar II

A long passage in the second mimar, almost completely independent from the Greek text, provides a developed discussion of the theme of learned ignorance. I quote the passage here in its entirety Th.A II.46-52 Badawi 36-7 Someone may say if the soul has imagined this lower world before it reaches it, then there is no doubt that it also imagines the lower world after it has left it, and reached the higher world. If it has imagined it, then there is no doubt that it remembers it. But you have said...

Introduction

William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris, was one of the first theologian-philosophers of the thirteenth century to be profoundly influenced by the Greek and Arabic texts entering the Latin West during the latter part of the twelfth and the first half of the thirteenth centuries.1 William's familiarity with these texts, however, should not imply that he was either especially accepting or critical of the new ideas contained within. Rather, like many in the generation following his, William, as a...

The Neoplatonic Methodology and the Aim of Return

In order to best arrive at an understanding of what I mean by 'Neoplatonic Methodology,' I offer the following initial considerations 1. Return. I will use the term 'Return' quite broadly, and will not worry here about whether the intention is a 'mystical' union with the Godhead, or a subtler notion of self-perfection resulting in purified capacity for reflection, or prophecy or some other purified state of the human soul. Speaking quite generally, I will use the notion to refer to a 'perfected...

Joshua PHochschild Introduction

Bonaventure and Thomas Aquinas each refer to a Neoplatonic theory of ethics according to which, above the two familiar levels of human virtue the political and contemplative there are two further levels of virtue for immaterial substances. Furthermore, according to this theory, the four cardinal virtues which are usually considered as political (or moral) are in fact manifested in each of these four levels. Both Bonaventure and Aquinas cite Macrobius as the authority for this theory. Though...

Conclusion

Even a reading of three books of William's massive Magisterium divinale et sapientiale makes it clear that William knew well the teaching of Aristotle and Avicenna, and that he often relied upon their arguments to prove his points. From the first chapters of De trinitate throughout De universo and De anima William's most philosophical arguments depend in large part upon Avicennian metaphysics. Such a dependence is well illustrated by the importance William placed upon Avicenna's maxim that...

Esse Freely Bestowed

That existing is undeserved is a logical (or grammatical) point, of course, reminding us that there is nothing there to claim or even be given existence. So any talk of possible worlds being actualized can be nothing more than a fagon deparler, and to my mind a grossly misleading one (Ross 1996). For as Aquinas had to remind Avicenna, the only possibility there can be prior to creation ex nihilo lies not in the passive potentiality of matter, but in the active power of God to create without...

Notes

1 Porphyry, Vita Plotini, chapter 14. 2 See the references to Aristotle (Nicomachean Ethics 3.10) at Guide 2.36 371 (Pines) 3 I have further discussed historiographical issues in The Historiography of Jewish 4 My gloss on Maimonides' Aristotelianism parallels that of McInerny's on Aquinas. He writes, .we find many references to Aristotle in Thomas, we find the invocation of doctrines, the quoting of phrases. Confronted with these, we should not consult Aristotle for guidance on what Thomas is...

Introduction and Biography

Over the past century, western scholars have paid more attention to Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazzali (d. 505 AH AD 1111) than to any other Muslim thinker of his age. Despite this, we remain divided and confused over the precise nature of his religious thought. Our confusion stems primarily from the great and eclectic literary production of Ghazzali (and those who wrote in his name). While Ghazzali is most known as a Sufi writer, he also contributed to theology, jurisprudence and philosophy....

Moral Philosophy as the Finis Completion of Philosophical Studies

One interesting development in Roger Bacon, which he shares with the Poet, Dante Alighieri, is his explicit subordination of theoretical philosophy to practical philosophy.5 The extent to which both Bacon and Dante differ from other Medieval Philosophers has been recognized by the late Etienne Gilson. In the Opus maius and elsewhere, Bacon explicitly follows a conception of the goal or completion of Philosophia which is clearly set out by Maimonides in The Guide. The question naturally arises...

Creative Contemplation

The fifth and last book of the Consolation of Philosophy refutes a divine determinism to which the argument of the work as a whole seemed to lead. By a formula about the relation of the subject and object of knowing, Boethius dissolves a necessity which had threatened to deconstruct his Consolation. Lady Philosophy declares it is not true that all things are known by the power and nature of the objects known. Totally the contrary, for all which is known is comprehended not according to the...

Neglect in the Standard Histories

From the nineteenth century to the present important histories of philosophy when treating the Middle Ages focus on the history of Christian philosophy. Detailed accounts have been offered of significant Christian thinkers and issues in order to sketch the history of the philosophy in the West that existed after the Classical philosophy of the ancients and before modern philosophy. Within this context, historians have discussed Islamic and Jewish philosophy in the standard histories almost...

Aristotles Platonism

In surely one of the seminal essays in Greek philosophy of the last fifty years, The Platonism of Aristotle (1966), G.E.L.Owen set out to counter Werner Jaeger's influential story of Aristotle's philosophical development.5 For Jaeger, Aristotle began his philosophical career as a Platonist, and by this he meant a Platonist wedded to the canonical theory of Forms and deeply anti-empiricist epistemology familiar to us from the Phaedo, Symposium, and Republic. Over time, again according to Jaeger,...

Prophecy and Invulnerability

Why It is on account of his unmerited suffering. He did nothing to deserve what he got. Implicit in this thought is the idea that one gets, and ought to get, (only) what one deserves. Maimonides does not disagree with the implicit idea, but vigorously denies that Job is blameless in his suffering indeed, this is Eliphaz's (traditional) view, the view in keeping with the opinion of our Law, according to Maimonides (Guide 3.23 494). We read the trial of Job as an...

Language about God and Analogy

It is quite noticeable that Roger Bacon, unlike Thomas Aquinas, does not accept a doctrine of the Analogy of Being. Instead, he presents analogy as a species of equivocation.2 Bacon is very explicit in his criticism of essential being (esse essentiae) a doctrine which he associates with Richard Rufus of Cornwall, and a doctrine which he claimed was introduced into Oxford by the latter (Raedts, 1987 Wood, 1998). In Bacon's approach, Aristotle did not provide a complete doctrine of Analogy. Bacon...

Philosophical Style

One notices a peculiar personal style of presentation in the post-1250 writings of Roger Bacon. Bacon's manner of presentation in the personal mode, although not unique to him (it is also found in other English authors such as Richard Rufus), does differ from the more impersonal form of many scholastic philosophers. And that includes Roger Bacon himself in his scholastic mode of presentation in the Parisian Commentaries of the 1240's. Was this more personal approach suggested by a reading of...

Eternity

In the Timaeus Plato tells us that the model (paradeigma) after which the Demiurge made the all (tode to pan) is an Eternal Living Creature (zoon aidion on), and that he made this all more similar (homoion) to its model through the fabrication of Time And as the nature of the Living Creature was to be eternal, it was impossible to bind this nature in its entirety to becoming (toigennetoi). So he planned to make a certain moving image of Eternity (eikd kineton tina aionos), and then in setting...

The Case for a Balanced History

In recent decades, an enormous amount of work has been carried out on the history of Islamic and Jewish philosophy. While little of the fruits of this research found its way into the ten volume Routledge History of Philosophy, Routledge has published two weighty works on these philosophical traditions in the Routledge History of World Philosophies series. The History of Islamic Philosophy, edited by Seyyed Nasr and Oliver Leaman, was published in 1996 and The History of Jewish Philosophy,...

Astrology

Both Maimonides and Bacon offer critiques of the stupid or false Astrologers.3 On the surface, it would appear that Bacon's position is a polar opposite to that of Maimonides in that he utilizes Abu Mashar's Grand Conjunctions and The Introduction to Astronomy in order to devise a sociology of religious societies of the kind mentioned above in reference to Ancient Judaism.4 Yet, Bacon is very careful in making qualifications to Abu' Mashar's account, and these precisions may in fact echo the...

Avicenna william of Auvergne and Aquinas on the Divine Essence1

In the De ente et essentia, Aquinas refers to certain philosophers who say that God does not have a quiddity or essence, because his essence is not other than his being (esse) (Aquinas, DEE 5.1 378, Leonine). And in his commentary on Lombard's Sentences, Aquinas singles out Avicenna and Maimonides as holding to the notion that divine being (esse) is without essence (Aquinas, Sent. 1.2.1.3 1 67, Mandonnet).2 Apparently for Avicenna and Maimonides, at least in Aquinas' estimation, the denial of...

Chapter Thirteen On Defining Maimonides Aristotelianism

In the history of medieval Jewish philosophy one usually sees Maimonides described as an Aristotelian, and Julius Guttmann speaks for the traditional historiography of Jewish philosophy when he writes, In the middle of the twelfth century Aristotelianism displaced Neoplatonism as the dominating influence in Jewish philosophy of religion (Guttmann 1973, 152). Of late, however, Alfred Ivry has suggested that It is not the least of the paradoxes of the Guide that Maimonides' underlying...

The Evidence

Throughout his later works, the Opus maius, Opus minus, Opus tertium and others, Bacon tells the reader that he was not able to write an Opus principale. Due to the necessities of his duties as a Franciscan friar, he had to opt for work of rhetorical introduction (an Opus preambulatum). Still, Roger Bacon makes many references to some of the major Summae and Sententiae of his contemporaries. On the negative side, he condemns the Summa fratris Alexandri and the works of Richard Rufus (Bacon,...

Bonaventure

Both the Augustinian Anselmian and the Dionysian Boethian logics have crucial places in the Itinerarium of Bonaventure. But the Dionysian or Boethian contains the Augustinian. Within a threefold ascent up the wings of a Dionysian Seraph, who finally draws us to a union described in terms taken from The Mystical Theology (Bonaventure 1956, 7.5), the first step is, in large measure, derived from the De Anima of Aristotle modified by Augustinian Illuminationism. The middle step depends upon a...

Did Roger Bacon Read Maimonides

The reception of the Guide of the Perplexed (Dux neutrorum) into the Latin West in the 13th c. followed on the translation of that work into Latin in the 1240's.1 Master Peter of Ireland, Rabbi Moses ben Solomon of Salerno and Friar Niccolo' da Giovinazzo OP (Nicholas Paglia) read the Latin version together around 1250 (Peter of Ireland, Expositio et Quaestiones in Aristotelis Librum De Longtitudine et Brevitate Vitae, 7-9). Those who taught philosophy or indeed theology at European...

Wayne JHankey Introduction

The character of subjectivity in pre-modern Christian theological and philosophical writings has been and remains a question.1 Partly this is owed to the anti-modern purposes of the nineteenth century revival of scholasticism in the Roman Church. In that campaign a shift from being to the subject was associated with modernity (Hankey 1998a, 141-152 Hankey 1998b, 157-188 Inglis 1998). At present we have a postmodern retrieval of the Platonic traditions which also wishes to get back beyond what...

The Context of the Milan Ascent

Although commentators have largely overlooked the fact, Augustine plays fair with us from the outset. He warns us that the story of his reflections in Milan will be the story of a failure, not of a success And first, because you desired to show me how you resist the proud but give grace to the humble, and how much your mercy has been shown to men by the path of humility, because your Word was made flesh and dwelt among men, you procured for me certain books of the Platonists.2 (7.9.13) God...

Moses as Protagonist in the Dramatic Shift from Ancient to Medieval Philosophy

In leading students into the vortex of the debate which the Hebrew scriptures were to engender in philosophical circles, it has proven beneficial to pursue closely Aristotle's inquiry in the Metaphysics, showing how his attempt to respond to a legacy of questions, notably from Plato, virtually set the agenda for subsequent philosophical reflection on these comprehensive issues. Yet the encounter with Moses (as the putative author of Genesis) displays a lacuna which earnest students of Aristotle...

Evidence Against a Divine Whatness

Aquinas' claim that God ultimately is said not to have essence according to Avicenna has textual warrant. In the medieval Latin adaptation of Avicenna's al-Ilahiyyat (Divine Science) of the Kitab al-Shifa' (Book of Healing), namely the Liberdephilosophiaprima sive scientia divina, Avicenna states, The first therefore, does not have a quiddity, rather being (esse) flows from it onto those things having quiddity. He himself is denuded being (esse exspoliatum mujarrad al-wujud), in a condition...

The Paradoxical Mode of Discourse

The preceding texts of William, then, leave us with a particular interpretive quandary. For on the one hand, there is little doubt that essentia bears a definitional sense, which is entirely inadmissible with respect to divine being, given the delimiting character of definitions. On the other hand, notwithstanding the fact that God is said to be absolutely simple in his being, it is just as certain that he has an essence, as captured in the pithy formula ens per essentiam. At this juncture,...

Sight vs Hearing Knowledge vs Faith

O'Donnell has drawn our attention to an important difference in the language used to report the two experiences. Vision is the predominant image in Milan, but hearing is predominant at Ostia (O'Donnell 1992, 3 128, 133). Now vision means understanding and hearing means faith for faith comes by hearing, knowledge by sight. But vision also means lust of the eyes. In Book 3, where Augustine describes his encounter with the Hortensius and his subsequent reading of Scripture, the repeated use of...

Act and Eternity Averroes

If my analysis of the argument from Philoponus found in Simplicius' paraphrase is correct, then Averroes seems to have managed to pinpoint the real drive behind Philoponus' argumentation. If it is possible at all for the heavens to perish or to come to a halt, then this possibility will necessarily be realized, merely on account of the inevitability of nature itself.20 As beginning follows from end, Philoponus tries to prove Biblical creation to be a natural necessity for the naturalist...

Potency Higher than

One of the few original passages in AP that can be compared to Th.A II.46-52 in terms of its complexity and length is Th.A VIII.52-68, a discussion of potency in the intellectual world. Although these two passages are far separated in the text of Th.A, a closer inspection of the text shows that they may be closely related. For the long section in mimar VIII is not, in fact, entirely independent from the Greek. Rather, it is a sort of commentary on a section of Enn IV.4, in fact on the section...

The Primacy of Esse

What the revelatory traditions of Bible and Qur'an alike insist upon is the distinction of creator from creation nothing uncreated can be associated with the creator, as Islam prefers to put it in celebrating the radical oneness of God tawhid . The rabbis were equally insistent, of course, in distinguishing God's revelation to Israel from the surrounding polytheisms, for the revelation of there being but one God cannot simply mean that one out of the current pantheon wins out. Once this one God...

The Intentions and the Problem with the Tripartite Scheme

This symmetrical interpretation of Ghazzal 's spiritual career is tempting. It provides a meaningful arc to Ghazz l 's career, assigning him a forethought that seems appropriate for a scholar and mystic of his stature. It also would provide a clear hermeneutic for our reading of the Intentions of the Philosophers, whereby we could see each word of the work as an ingenious and conscious paraphrase. By this reading Ghazz l is like a great trial lawyer, cunningly undermining his opponents, the...

Porphyrys Hierarchy of Virtues

Porphyry's Sentences are a collection of forty-four loosely related philosophical discourses, mostly about neo-Platonic metaphysics and psychology. Some of the Sentences are just single propositions, while others consist of longer expositions and arguments. By far the longest of all the sentences, the thirty-second, gives an account of virtue.3 Porphyry begins his account of virtue with the familiar distinction between political and contemplative virtue. Virtues are divided into two sets, one...

Humility as a Virtue and the Crux of Magnanimity

In his paper on Anger as a Vice A Maimonidean Critique of Aristotle's Ethics, Daniel Frank argues for Maimonides' interpretation of Aristotelian Virtue in the light of the fundamental Old Testament virtue of Humility before God (Frank, 1990). He notes that Maimonides' praise of in-irascibility betokens an un-Aristotelian conception of the self and, likewise an un-Aristotelian notion of what constitutes self-esteem (Frank, 1990, 277) and Contradiction notwithstanding, Maimonides' final word on...

Time as Nous

What is the monad of Time itself and how does it measure the circular activity of the Soul According to Proclus, it is a nous which is unfolded and unrolled by the activity of things in Time, but primarily by the dianoetic activity of the Soul. For as Nous is to the Soul, so is Eternity to Time, and inversely, so that Time is before the Soul, just as Eternity is before Nous. And Time should be participated by the Soul, and does not participate in the Soul, just as Nous does not participate in...

Williams Correction of Avicenna

The great irony of William's use of Avicenna's principle that 'nature operates in the manner of a servant' is that William so often uses this expression in his De trinitate, De universo, and De anima to correct Avicenna. His corrections cover a wide variety of topics, including the free will of rational creatures, and arguments against necessary emanation and the eternality of the world. William repeatedly uses Avicenna's nature servant principle in De universo to correct several errors in...

Evidence For a Divine Whatness

With respect to Avicenna's discussion of God's whatness, matters are seriously complicated. For in the very same chapter of the (or Liber de philosophia prima) where a divine quiddity (mahiyya) is disallowed, Avicenna suggests that we do not so much deny a quiddity to the first as identify that quiddity with anitas (ann yya whetherness), very much in the way that Aquinas would. In other words, God would have no quiddity or essence except his being (esse). As Avicenna writes, Therefore, the...

Bonaventure on the Neoplatonic Hierarchy of Virtues

Bonaventure is among those medieval Christian philosophers who specifically address this Neoplatonic theory of a hierarchy of virtues. He discusses it at length in Collationes in Hexaemeron 6, where he attributes the theory to Plotinus, apparently on the authority of Macrobius Collation 6 ends with a long excerpt from Macrobius's Dream of Scipio.2 Bonaventure begins the sixth Collation as a discussion of the passage at Genesis 1 4 God saw the light that it was good and he divided the light from...

Ghazzali and the Tripartite Scheme

Both Muslim and western historians have aptly described Ghazzali's life as a journey. It was a physical journey, from Nishapur to Baghdad to Damascus and Mecca and eventually back to Nishapur. Yet it was also a spiritual journey, from philosophy to skepticism to mysticism. The Intentions was the starting point of this journey.27 Ghazzali himself contributed to this understanding I realized that to refute a system before understanding it and becoming acquainted with its depths is to act blindly....

Conclusion Of Cardinal Virtues

In comparing Bonaventure's and Aquinas's appropriations of the Neoplatonic hierarchy of virtues, we note first that both Christian writers affirm the theory without hesitation. Even though they confront it in specifically theological contexts, both authors eagerly adopt from a pagan authority a theory bearing on the end of man. Indeed, both of them give specifically Christian emphasis to the ethical theory. Bonaventure insists that the whole of Sacred Scripture is concerned with the exemplar...

Notes on Contributors

Peter Adamson King's College London works on ancient and medieval philosophy with a focus on early Arabic Philosophy. His publications include Aristotelianism and the Soul in the Arabic Plotinus and Two Early Arabic Doxographies on the Soul al-Kindi and the Arabic Plotinus. His book on the Arabic Plotinus will appear in 2002. David B.Burrell, C.S.C. University of Notre Dame works mainly on comparative issues in philosophical theology in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. His publications include...

Maimonides Aristotelianism

I offer the foregoing for purposes of a contextual introduction to the explicit subject of this chapter, Maimonides' Aristotelianism. Let me be quite clear at the outset that I think there is a good sense to be given to the designation. I think we should continue to consider Maimonides an Aristotelian, whatever else he may be 6 nevertheless it behooves us to reflect upon what precisely we mean when we so describe him. First of all, and most importantly, it is not on account of any of the...

The Structure of Subjectivity in the Boethian Itinerarium

Eriugena's Periphyseon is a cosmogony before it is, and in order that it might be, the saving itinerarium of the soul. The homo in which all is created is universal. In order to see how creative subjectivity works in the journey of an individual to salvation, and in order to establish one of the elements of our comparison, we must return to the Consolation. In Boethius philosophy is a way of life which brings repose and freedom Boethius 1973, 1.4, p. 144, lines 1-4 Quisquis composite serenus...

Anselms Quest and an Opposed Subjectivity

Anselm tells us that the Proslogion was undertaken because he wanted an argument for the existence and nature of God which conformed to the divine nature. He was dissatisfied with the form of the Monologion which he characterized as a concatenation of many arguments woven together. He wanted, instead, unum argumentum which by its own simplicity and self-sufficiency imaged the divine self-sufficient unity Anselm 1946, Prooemium, p. 93, lines 5-7 . The quest for a thinking which conforms in this...

Sarah Pessin Introduction

Avicenna is subject to a variety of well-known criticisms, perhaps most famously that he made of existence an accident.2 Rahman and others have, I think convincingly, argued that in fact, Avicenna does not literally treat existence as an accident.3 However, there seems to remain in both Avicenna and Aquinas scholarship the residual sense that even if he did not literally mean to make of existence an accident Avicenna does resort to invoking a misleading 'essence existence' image, if you will.4...

Porphyry and Learned Ignorance in AP

We have now seen the philosophical motivation for the doctrine of learned ignorance in AP. It falls into a general pattern of thought on the Adaptor's part in which he uses terms implying deprivation in order to express transcendence. Let us, then, turn to the question of the sources of the doctrine of ignorance as used by the Adaptor. I argued above that a major source for his defense of the doctrine was Aristotelian, but that Aristotle was not the entire inspiration for the passage in the...

Chapter Six Forms of Knowledge in the Arabic Plotinus

The theme of docta ignorantia, a learned ignorance or an ignorance that transcends knowledge, is a familiar one to students of Neoplatonism. It is perhaps most closely associated with the 15th century philosopher Nicholas of Cusa, but of course appears much earlier in the Neoplatonic tradition. Among these earlier appearances is the discussion of a knowledge beyond knowledge and ignorance gnosin exo gnoseos kai agnoias in a fragment of the Commentary on the Parmenides attributed to Porphyry...

Preexistence and the Aristotelian Defense of Avicennian Ontology

Without spending too much time rehearsing Rahman's defense of Avicenna against the reading of those who take Avicenna to have made of 'existence' an accident, it should be noted that it is a very Aristotelian defense of Avicenna. In brief, this defense has the effect of reducing Avicenna's claims about essences and existences to claims about Aristotelian ousiai the substantial existents of Aristotle's ontology.7 In effect, Rahman and others argue that Avicenna does not mean by 'existence' an...

Plenitude and the World of Becoming Proclus Simplicius

The question arises why this suspended, constant and eternal outflow from God or, in truth, from the One, for the God of Avicenna is the God of the Neoplatonists. The answer, in short, is Providence. The One is good by nature, and so its self-realization necessarily lies in the overflowing of being to its greatest possible extent. In Plotinus and in Neoplatonist thought ever onwards we find the idea of maximal creation revitalized the principle of Plenitude in the sense Lovejoy deemed most...

The Volume

The claim here is that we need more cross-pollination in the study of medieval thought than occurs at present and especially in the histories that do so much to establish and maintain the boundaries of the discipline. The present work is an attempt to move in this direction. As the Islamic philosophical tradition was the privileged site for the study and continuation of the Classical philosophical tradition in the Middle Ages, due attention is given to this tradition. An initial chapter on the...

James Lowry Proclus

This chapter is an examination of certain parts of the philosophy of Proclus. Its aim is to clarify in what manner Proclus is a systematic thinker. The notion of philosophical system which comes to mind from a contemporary standpoint is not the notion which Proclus had, and any interpretation of Proclus from a later standpoint is bound to fail. Proclus' notion of philosophical system, moreover, is important for the interpretation of all medieval philosophy, because the Greek Neoplatonic...

Time as a Moving Image of Eternity

In what manner is Time a moving image of Eternity Proclus tells us that Eternity measures the intelligible, as a unity, while Time measures the things which are in becoming, as numbered. Eternity is a measure in the sense that the multiplicity of intelligibles in the autozoon are all beings, and as such they are all expressions of the unity which is the One-Being. Eternity is the principle which brings them forth into a permanent existence, and leads them back beyond itself to the One-Being,...

History of Understanding The Intentions of the Philosophers

It was just before his departure from Baghdad that Ghazzali began the Intentions of the Philosophers,4 a book apparently composed at the request of his students. In it, Ghazzali provides a systematic exposition of the philosophical sciences with a distinctly Aristotelian angle. The Intentions, an expression of his two years of personal study,5 is a clear and careful work, reflecting the philosophical tradition of al-Farabi d. 339 950 and Ibn Sina Avicenna 428 1037 , whom Ghazzali considered the...