Perhaps Moltmann's greatest achievement in the earlier works was to open up hermeneutical structures for relating biblical faith to the modern world. The strength and appropriateness of these structures lie in their biblical basis, their Christological center, and their eschatological openness. They give Moltmann's theology a relevance to the modern world that is achieved not only without surrendering the central features of biblical and historic Christian faith, but much more positively by probing the theological meaning of these in relation to contemporary realities and concerns. By recovering a Christological center that is both dialectical and eschatological, Moltmann's theology acquired an openness to the world which is not in tension with the Christological center but is actually required by the Christological center, and which is not an accommodation to conservative, liberal, or radical values, but has a critical edge and a consistent solidarity with the most marginalized members of society.

His later work continues to bring both the biblical history and the central themes of the Christian theological tradition into productive relationship with the contemporary context. In doing so, he has become the contemporary theologian who has perhaps most successfully transcended the dominant (theological and non-theological) paradigm of reality as human history, recognized in this a reflex of the modern ideology of domination, and attempted to enter theologically into the reciprocity of human history and the rest of nature as the history of God's creation. That he has been able to do so by developing and expanding the structures of his earlier thought, rather than rejecting and replacing them, demonstrates the her-meneutical fecundity of his theological vision and its ability to relate illuminatingly to fresh situations and insights.

A very notable feature of the later work is Moltmann's sustained attempt to reconceive the doctrine of God in order to do better justice than the tradition to the Christian perception of God as trinitarian love. In a period when many major theologians, questioning the axioms of metaphysical theism, have recognized the need to envisage God as receptive and suffering as well as active, and have also rediscovered the potential of thorough-going trinitarianism, Moltmann's has been one of the boldest and fullest explorations of such a doctrine of God. Its merits lie in the attempt to take utterly seriously those claims about God that lie at the heart of the Christian revelation. The attempt has its problems, but the issues are indisputably important for the credibility of the God of Christian faith today.


A bibliography of Moltmann's works up to 1987 is in D. Ising, Bibliographie Jürgen Moltmann (Munich, 1987), and a further bibliography of Moltmann's works in English translation (together with secondary literature) is in R Bauckham, The Theology of Jürgen Moltmann (Edinburgh, 1995).

Theology of Hope (London, 1967). Theology and Joy (London, 1973). The Crucified God (London, 1974). The Church in the Power of the Spirit (London, 1975).

The Trinity and the Kingdom of God (London, 1981).

On Human Dignity (London, 1984). God in Creation (London, 1985). The Way of Jesus Christ (London, 1989).

The Spirit of Life (London, 1991).

History and the Triune God (London, 1991).

The Coming of God (London, 1996).

Experiences in Theology (London, 2000).


Bauckham, R., Moltmann: Messianic Theology in the Making (Basingstoke, 1987).

--The Theology of Jürgen Moltmann (Edinburgh, 1995).

logy of Jürgen Moltmann (Edinburgh, 1999).

Conyers, A. J., God, Hope, and History (Macon, GA, 1988).

Meeks, M. D., Origins of the Theology of Hope (Philadelphia, PA, 1974).

Müller-Fahrenholz, G., The Kingdom and the Power (London, 2000).

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