Notes

I For the great diversity in CEB definitions, see, for example: Mariano Baraglia, Ei/oluçâo das Comunidades Eclesiais de Base: Experiências Comunitarias na Cidade de Sâo Paulo (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1974), p. 54; Luís Fernandes, Como $e Faz urna Comunidade Eclesial de Base¡ 5th edn, (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1986), p, 47; Yves Congar, 'Os Grupos Informais na Igreja: Um Ponto de Vista Católica', in A. Gregory (éd.), Comunidades Eclesiais de Base: Utopia ou Realidade (Petrópolis, Vozes/CERIS, 1973), p. 127; Faustino L. C Teixeira, A Fé na Vida: Um Estudo Teológico-Pastoral Sobre a Experiencia das Comunidades Eclesiais de Base fio Brasil (Sao Paulo, Ediçôes Loyola, 1988}, pp. ¿0-3.

2 The words comunidades eclesial and de base are given individualised treatment in Marcello deC. Azevedo, Basic Ecclesial Communities in Brazil; The Challenge of a New Way of Being Church, tr. J. Drury (Washington, Georgetown University Press, 1987), pp. 57-117; Clodovis Boff, Comunidade Eclesial> Comunidade Política: Ensaios de Eclesiologia Política (Pctrópolis, Vozes, 1978), pp. 51-63; Guillermo Cook, The Expectation of the Poor: Latin American Basic Ecclesial Communities in Protestant Perspective (Mary knoll, NY, Or bis, 1985), pp. 61-85; Jesus Andres Vela, Las Comunidades de Base y una Iglesia Nuevay 4th edn {Buenos Aires, Editorial Guadalupe, 1971), pp. 150-3,

3 See, for example: Edward L. Cleary, Crisis and Change: The Church in Latin America Today (Maryknoll NY, Orbis, 1985), pp. 104-24; David Lehmann, Democracy and Development in Latin America: Economics, Politics and Religion in the Postwar Period (Oxford, Polity Press, 1990), pp. 126-41; Arnoldo Zenteno, La G E. B* en México (Centro Antonio de Montesinos, Mexico City, 1983}, pp. 171-89.

4 For developments in Latin America see Celso Furtado, Economic Development of Latin America: Historical Background and Contemporary Problems, 2nd edn, tr* S. Maccdo (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1976); for Brazil, Thomas E. Skidmore, Politics in Brazil* 1930-1964; An Experiment in Democracy (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1967).

5 Protestantism and communism were listed by Pius XII among the £four mortal dangers' to Roman Catholicism in Latin America; the other two were naturalism {including liberalism and nationalism) and spiritism. Hellmut G. Vitalis, The Significance of Changes in Latin American Catholicism Since Chimbóte 1953 (Cuernavaca, CIDOC, 1969), p. 3/1.

6 For desobriga, see Axe vedo, Basic Ecclesial Communities in Brazil, p. ó 7. For an account of the pastoral overload generated by priestly scarcity in Brazil, see Alfredo Konz, lA bcc in a rural setting: Morroas', in Basic Christian Communities^ LADOC Keyhole Series, no. 14 (Washington, Georgetown University Press, 1976), pp. 30-4.

7 Gustavo Perez, Alfonso Gregory and François Lepargneur, O Problema Sacerdotal no Brasil, (Rio de Janeiro, FERES/CERIS, 19Ó5), p* 15.

8 For example, Leonardo Boff, Ecclesiogenesis: The Base Communities Reinvent the Church, tr. R. R. Barr (London, Collins, 1986), p. 3; and, José Marins, Comunidades cclcsialcs de base en América Latina', in Concilium, 104 (April

9 The following material draws upon: Agnelo Rossi, 'Uma experiencia de catequese popular1, in Revista Eclesiástica Brasileira, 17 (September 1957), pp. 731-6; and 'Os principáis manuais de catequese popular*, in Revista Eclesiástica Brasileira> 18 (June 1958), ppt 461-3.

10 For evidence that Rossi's clericalism was not out of step with the church either abroad or in Brazil at this time, see: Avery Dulles, Models of the Church: A Critical Assessment of the Church in All Its Aspects, 2nd edn (Gill and Macmillan, Dublin, 1988), p. 52, and Almir R> Guimarâes, Comunidades de Base: Urna Nova Maneira de Ser em Igreja (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1978), p. 104, for Roman Catholicism in general; F. L, C. Teixeira, A Cénese das Cebs no Brasil: Elementos Explicativos (Sâo Paulo, Ediçôes Paulinas, 1988), pp. 67-72, and Sergio Bernai, La Iglesia del Brasil y el Compromiso Social: Ei Paso de la Iglesia de ¡a Cristiandad a ¡a Iglesia de los Pobres (Rome, Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Gregoriana, 1986), p. 69, for Brazil.

11 David Regan, Church for Liberation: A Pastoral Portrait of the Church in Brazil (Dublin, Dominican Publications, 1987), p. 153; Bernai, La Iglesia del Brasil,

12 François Houtart, 'The Master Plan Arrives in Latin America', in J, J. Considine (ed.), The Church in the New Latin America (Notre Dame, IL, Fides, 1964}, pp. 52-63.

13 The Emergency Plan was published in two parts, in Comunicado Mensai, 116 (May 1962), pp. 7~ai and 1x7 (June 1962), pp, 16-46; Conferencia Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil, Plano de Pastoral de Conjunto, 2nd cdn (Rio de Janeiro, Livraria Dom Bosco Editora, 1967),

14 For ongoing sociological developments in Latin America and Europe, see: David E. Mute hier, The Church as a Political factor in Latin America (New York, Praeger, 1971), pp. 29-31; and Guiniarâcs, Comunidades de Base> pp, 125-34, For ecclesiological developments, see Giuseppe Alberigo, Jean-Pierre Jossua and Joseph A* Komonchakj The Reception of Vatican II, tr, M. J, O'Connell (Burns and Oates, Tunbridge Wells> 1987); and J. Gremillion (ed,), The Church and Culture Since Vatican II: The Experience of North and Latin America {Notre Dame, IL, University of Notre Dame Press, 1985).

15 References to Vatican II documents are taken from Austin Flanncry (ed.), Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post-Conciliar Documents, rev. edn (Dublin, Dominican Publications, 1988).

16 Dulles, Models of the Church, pp. 37-49*

17 Earlier, yet uncoordinated, attempts at parish decentralisation had been under way in Brazil since the late 1950s. Madeleine Adriance, Opting for the Poor: Brazilian Catholicism in Transition (Shccd and Ward, Kansas City, 1986), pp. 54-9.

iS Baraglia, Evoluçâo das Comunidades Eclesiais de Base> p, 59; Paulo P. Koop, (Lins: comunidades em renovaçâo*, in Vozes, no. 9 (September 1969), p. 799»

19 References to the Mcdellin documentation arc taken from CELAM: Second General Conference of Latin American Bishops: The Church in the Present-Day Transformation of Latin America in the Light of the Council: II Conclusions;, 3rd edn (Washington, NCCB, 1979).

20 Sec Thomas E. Skidmore, The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, /964-19SJ (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1988).

21 Dominique Barbé, Grace and Power: Base Communities and Nonviolence in Brazil, tr. J, P, Brown (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis, 1987), p. 92.

22 For the Base Education Movement (MEB), see Luiz E. Wanderley, Educar Para Transformar: Educaçao Popular, Igreja Católica e Política no Movimento de Educaçao de Base (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1984); for Catholic University Youth (JUC): Luiz A. Gómez de Souza, A JUC: O s Estudantes Católicos e A Política (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1984).

23 G. Gutiérrez, 'Toward a Theology of Liberation* (July 1968), in Alfred T. Hennelly (ed,), Liberation Theology: A Documentary History (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis, 1990). p. 71.

24 For example, Raimundo Caramuru de Barros, Comunidade Eclesial de Base: Uma Opçâo Pastoral Decisiva (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1968), pp. 55-66.

25 See, for example: Frei Bctto, O Que é Comunidade Eclesial de Base, 4tli edn (Sao Paulo, Editora Brasilicnse, 1981), pp. 29-44; and D. Barbé and E. Retumba, Retrato de Urna Comunidade de Base: Prática e Teología de Comunidade de Base (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1970), pp. 25-34,

26 For a treatment of the pedagogical processes operative within the CEB, see: Antonio Alonso, Comunidades Eclesiales de Base: Teología-Sociología-Pastoral (Salamanca, Ediciones Sigúeme, 1970), pp. 239-60; José Marins, Metodología Emergente das Comunidades Eclesiais de Base (Sao Paulo, Edi^óes Paulinas, 1980); Laura M. S, Duarte, Isto Nao se Aprende na Escola: A Educagao do Povo ñas CEBs (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1983). With special emphasis upon the use of the Bible, Carlos Mesters, Defenceless Flower: A New Reading of the Bible> tr. F. McDonagh (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis/Cllll, 1989).

27 For the earliest of these comments, see: Thomas C Bruncau, The Church in Brazil: The Politics of Religion (Austin, Texas University Press, 1980), p. 176; and Luiz G, de Souza Lima, Evoht$ao Política dos Católicos e da Igreja no Brasil: Hipóteses para urna Interpretado (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1979)+ pp. 24066.

28 For example: 'Subsidios para Puebla' (Sao Paulo, Edi^oes Paulinas, 1978); 'Subsidios para urna Política Social' (Sao Paulo, Edi^óes Paulinas, 1979); 'Igreja e Problemas da Terra5 (Sao Paulo, Edi^oes Paulinas, 1980); 'Reflexao Crista sobre a Conjuntura Política3 Comunicado Mensalt 347 (1981), pp* 733-41; 'Solo Urbano c A?ao Pastoral' (Sao Paulo, EdÍ?oes Paulinas, 1982).

29 Gervasio F. de Queiroga, Conferencia Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil: Conutnhao e Corresponsabilidade (Sao Paulo, Edi^ócs Paulinas, 1977}, pp* 394-403.

30 Cook, The Expectation of the Poor, p. 68.

31 Urna Igreja que Nasce do Povo (Petrópolis, Vozes, 1975).

32 The theme of the second interecclesial gathering (29 July-i August) was: A Church Born of the People Through the Spirit of God, *Uma igreja que nasce do povo pelo espirito de Deus - relatório e conclusocs do segundo cncontro dc Vitoria', ¡n SEDOCy 9, October/November 1976,

33 Brazilians Rubem Alves (A Theology of Human Hope {St Meinard, Abbey Press, 1969)) and Hugo Assmann (Teología desde la Praxis de la Liberación: Ensayo Teológico desde la América Dependiente (Salamanca, Ediciones Sigúeme, 1973) can be counted among the first generation, Brazilians among the second wave of liberation theologians might include, for example, Leonardo Boff, Joao B. Libánio and Carlos Mesters* See Battista Mondin, Os Teólogos da Libertagao (Sao Paulo, Edi^óes Paulinas, 1980); and Christian Smith, The Emergence of Liberation Theology: Radical Religion and Social Movement Theory (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991),

34 It was Leonardo Boff's application of basic democratic principles to Roman Catholic ecclesiastical structures in Church: Charism and Power. Liberation Theology and the Institutional Churchy tr, J. W. Dicrcksmeicr (London, SCM Press, 1985) which most alienated Vatican authorities,

35 Ronald M. Schneider, *Order and Progressf: A Political History of Brazil (Oxford, Wcstview Press, 1991), pp. 267fL

36 For an overview of the restoration i st programme and the ongoing debate in Latin America, see J, O. Beozzo (ed,), O Vaticano II e A Igreja Latino-Americana, (Sao Paulo, Edi?óes Paulinas, 1985), pp. 52-86.

37 J. B. Libánio, 'BECs in socio-cuitural perspective', in, Transformation, vol. 3, no. 3 (July/September 1986), pp. 7-11; and Scott Mainwaring, 'Grass-Roots Catholic Groups and Politics in Brazil', in S. Mainwaring and A. Wilde (eds.)¡ The Progressive Church in Latin America (Notre Dame, IL, University of Notre Dame Press, 1989}, pp. 151-92,

38 Vinícius C Brant, £Da Resistencia aos Movimentos Sociais; A Emergencia das Classes Populares em Sao Paulo', and Paul Singer, Movimentos de Bairro, in P. Singer and V. C. Brant (eds>), Sao Paulo: O Povo em Movimento (Pctrópolis. Vozes, 1980), pp. 9-28, 85-92.

39 BettOj O Que é Comumdade Eclesial de Base, pp. 91-2.

40 Scott Mainwaring, The Catholic Church and Politics in Brazil, 1916-1985 {Stanford, MT, Stanford University Press, 1986), pp. 237-53; Ralph Delia Cava, The "Peoples Church", the Vatican and Abertura1, in Alfred Stepan (ed.), Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1989), pp, 143-67.

41 W, E. Hewitt, Base Christian Communities and Social Chaiige in Brazil (Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1991), pp. 91-105,

Self Help Affirmations

Self Help Affirmations

The big book of affirmations from personal development authors. An affirmation is something you say to yourself. Everybody uses them on purpose or accidentally. You get up in the morning, leap out of bed and proclaim,

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment