Research On Basil Moore In Field Of Black Theology

1 Sec Basil Moore, An Introduction to Black Theology (London, C Hurst and Co, 1973).

2 vhe Journal of Black Theology in South Africa was launched in May 1987.

3 The divisions within the South African liberation theology debate are seen nowhere more clcarly than in Simon S. Maimela's review of Albert Nolan's God in South Africa (Cape Town, David Philip, 1988) in the Journal of Black Theology in South Africa 3:1 {May 1989), pp. 50-2.

4 In Alberto Espada-Matta, Church and State in the Social Context of 1mtin America {New York, Vantage Press, 1985), p. 41,

5 Gustavo Gutiérrez, A Theology of Liberation (Maryknoll, NY, Or bis Books,

6 In his early formative work, Gutiérrez argues that Marxism is simply the best theory available for ensuring that theology is adequately contextual (ibid,, pp. 9-10)- In the decade of the 1980s a shift is discernible in Gutierrez, away from ideological structuralist critique to a more pragmatic approach to poverty, grounded in participatory involvement. In his 1984 essay, 'Theology and the Social Sciences', published in The Truth Shall Set You Free (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1990) he affirms the use of dependency theory in liberation theology, while arguing that this does not imply a 'permanent commitment to it1. He continues: in the context of theological work, this theory is simply a means of better understanding social reality' (p. 61),

7 Gustavo Gutierrez, We Drink From Our Own Wells (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1984}; On Job (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1987),

8 Juan Luis Segundo, The Shift in Latin American Theology', published, inter aliay in Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, Number 52 (September 1985), pp. 17-2.99 Ibid.

10 See, inter alia, E. Tamez, Against Machismo (Oak Park, Meyer Stone, 1987} and Through Her Eyes: Women's Theology From Latin America (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books* 1989). Also Ana Maria Tcpedino and Margarida L. Ribeiro Brandao, 'Women and the Theology of Liberation1, in Ignacio Ellacuria and Jon Sobrino (cds,), Mysterium Liberations: Fundamental Concepts of Liberation Theology (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1993), pp. 221-31.

ir See S. Torres and J Eagleson {eds.}> Theology in the Americas (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1976}.

12 Enrique Dussel, Theology of Liberation and Marxism1, in Ellacuria and Sobrino (eds,), Mysterium Liberationism p. 86,

13 Sec Franz J, Hinkelammcrt, The Ideological Weapons of Death; A Theological Critique of Capitalism (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1986),

14 Dussel, 'Theology of Liberation and Marxism1, in Ellacuria and Sobrino (cds,)j Mysterium Liberationism p. 88.

15 See Enrique Dussel, A History of Liberation Theology (Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans, 1981); Paul E. Sigmund, Liberation Theology at the Crossroads: Democracy or Revolution (New York, Oxford University Press, 1990); Deane William Ferm, Latin American Liberation Theology: An Introductory Survey (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1985),

16 John Eagleson (ed.), Christians and Socialism: Documentation of the Christians for Socialism Movement in Latin America (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1975)*

17 Ibid.

18 Michael Walsh and Brian Da vies (eds J, Proclaiming Justice and Peace: Documents From John XXII to John Paul //, par. 33 (London, Collins Liturgical Publications, 1984), p. 217.

19 Sigmund, Liberation Theology at the Crossroads, p. 50,

20 In Christianity and Crisis, 17 September 1973,

21 McGovern's careful study of liberation theology concédés that 'most liberation theologians favor some form of socialism ... I have yet to find any liberation theologians who do not favor some form of socialism/ Arthur F. McGovern, Liberation Theology and Its Critics {Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1989),

22 A notable exception was Jose Miranda. See, for example, his Marx and the Bible (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1974); Marx Against the Marxists (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1980). Also Hinkelammert, The Ideological Weapons of Death,

23 Hugo Assmann's A Practical Theology of Liberation (London, Search Press

1975) is an example of the former. Ciodovis Boff's Theology and Praxis: Epistemological Foundations (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1987), on the other hand, adopts a more nuanced usage of Marxian hermeneutics.

14 Gustavo Gutiérrez, "Notes on a Theology of Liberation', Theological Stud es, vol. 31, no. 1 {June 1970), pp. 254, 260-1.

25 Gustavo Gutiérrez, The Power of the Poor in History (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1983), p. 46.

26 At a Georgetown University Confcrcncc on Liberation Theology, 10 June 1985. Quoted in Sigmund, Liberation Theology at the Crossroadsf p, 238, footnote 3.

27 Ibid.

28 José Míguez Bonino, Doing Theology in A Revolutionary Situation (Philadelphia, Fortress Press, 1975), p. 73,

29 Hugo Assmann, Theology for a Nomad Church {Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1P- 49» Such developmcntist ideas include for him state capitalism, revolutionary nationalism and 'third option' economics as promoted by the Vatican.

31 Juan Luis Segundo, Faith and Ideologies {Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1984), p. 199,

32 Leonardo Boff, The Lord*s Prayer (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1983), p. 119.

33 Gutiérrez, A Theology of Liberation^ pp. 204-5.

34 Míguez Bonino, "Historical Praxis and Christian Identity1, in Rosino Gibellin ¡, ed,, Frontiers of Theology in Latin America (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1979), p. 263.

35 Leonardo Boff, Jesus the Liberator (London, SPCK, 1980), p. 265.

37 Jon Sobrino in J. Filochowski (ed.), Reflections on Puebla. See Christopher Rowland, Radical Christianity: A Reading of Recovery (Oxford, Polity Press, 1988), p, 128,

38 In Torres and Eagleson (eds.), Theology in the Americas, p, 385.

39 Peter Moll, "Liberating Liberation Theology: Towards Indcpcndcnce from Dependency Theory1, Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 78 (March 1992), pp. 34-5.

40 Ignacio Ellacuría, 'Utopia and Prophecy in Latin America', in Ellacuria and Sobrino (eds.), Mysterium Liberationism pp. 318-19.

41 Gregory Baum, 'Correspondence', in Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, no. 81 (December 1992}, pp. 72-4. For Moll's response to Baum, see pp. 747*

42 Juan Luis Segundo, The Liberation of Theology (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books,

43 Karl Rahner, The Shape of the Church to Come (London, SPCK, 1974), p. 79.

44 Gutierrez, The Power of the Poor, p. 192. Italics aie added.

47 Ibid.

48 L. Boff and C Boff, Introducing Liberation Theology (Tunbridge Wells, Burns and Oates, 1987), p. 64.

49 Segundo Galilea, Following Jesus (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1981).

50 Quoted in Rowland, Radical Christianity^ p. 121,

52 Sec, for example* Ernesto Cardenal, Love in Practice: The Gospel in Solentiname (London, SPCK, 1972).

53 I acknowledge the work of Neil Whitehouse, 'Images of God in the Fa velas of Rio de Janeiro', unpublished manuscript, 1992. See also R. Bastide, The Afro-Brazilian Religions (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978).

54 See Gutiérrez, We Drink from Our Own Wells, and A Theology of Liberation, pp. 203-8,

55 Donal Dorr, Integral Spirituality (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1990), p. 1.

56 In an interview conducted at CEDI (the Ecumenical Centre for Documentation and Information) in Rio de Janeiro in January 199357 Gar Alverovitz, 'Building a Living Democracy', Sojourners^ July 1990, p, 21,

58 Pope Paul VPs explanation is different. He sees it not as putting 'forward a solution which has universal validity1 but one designed to help 'Christian communities analyze their situation ,, . to shed on it the light of the Gospel... and to draw principles of reflection, norms of judgment and directives for action*. Octogésima Adveniens¡ no. 4 (London, Collins Pubications, 1984). See Bernard F. Connor, *The Church's Ministry in the Economic Field', Praxis, 4 (1994), p. 6.

59 Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston, Bcacon Press, 1967), p. 251.

61 See, inter alia, Joe Slovo, Has Socialism Failed? (London, hikululeko Publications, 1990). Shortly before he died, Slovo expressed the regret that he did not have the time to undertake a second study entitled, Has Capitalism Succeeded?

62 It must immediately be recognised that the notion of a contemporary 'market economy' is a complex reality that is not likely to disappear easily. It involves both international finance and trade agreements as well as an interweaving of 'checks and balances' negotiated between the workers and owners of business. When Adam Smith first used the concept England was to a significant degree a 'nation of shopkeepers*.

63 A survey conducted among businesses, NGOs, liberation movements and trade unionists in South Africa in 1988 (at the height of political conflict) showed that even then the economics debate was increasingly of a non-ideological kind. Although names were not disclosed in order to preserve confidentiality, the person conducting the survey indicated that big business was often suggesting socialist solutions (more government intervention), while supposedly 'left-wing' liberation movements were talking about encouraging business and private enterprise to play a more significant role in the proposed reconstruction proccss.

64 Sec, inter alia: Christian Faith and the World Economy, A Study Document from the World Council of Churches (Geneva, WCC Publications, 1992); Ulrich

Liberation and reconstruction

Duchrow and Martin Giick, Economic Alternatives: Responding to the Fifty Years of the Dominant Financial Systems Established at Brett on Woods (Heidelberg, Kairos Europa, May 1994); Robert Archer, Markets and Good Government: The Way Forward for Economic and Social Development (Geneva, UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service, 1994).

65 Christian Faith and the World Economy, pp. 25-6,

66 In South Africa a programme of Masakhane {social responsibility) has been introduced, with the personal support of President Mandela, requiring people who had under the apartheid regime refused to pay for services such as rent, to now make these payments.

67 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Report (New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992)- Sec also Christian Faith and the World Economy, pp. 18-20. For the cscalating global debt crisis within which poor nations become increasingly dependent on rich nations see Susan George, The Debt Boomerang: How Third World Debt Harms Us All (London, Pluto Press, 1992).

68 Duchrow and Giick, Economic Alternatives, p. 9.

69 Sec Duchrow and Giick, Economic Alternatives; Wolfgang Thomas, *The Dynamics of Unemployment and Job Creation in South Africa: Looking Behind Doomsday Projections1 (Cape Town, Institute for Theological and Interdisciplinary Research, August 1994); see also Connor, The Church's Ministry in the Economic Field', Praxis, 4 (1994), pp. 8-10,

70 Duchrow and Giick show that this was the intention of the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. This goal was contradicted by the United States, which promoted a policy that favoured the economically stronger countries at the expense of weaker nations (Economic Alternatives, p* 7).

71 Graeme Cowley is undertaking important theological work on depth ecology. See his Honours dissertation "God Reborn: Towards a Theology for an Ecological Age1 (Department of Religious Studies, University of Cape Town, 1994).

72 See, inter alia, Norman Gottwald, The Tribes of Yahweh (Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1979b Gerhard Lohfink, Jesus and Community (Philadelphia, Fortress Press, 1984); Richard A. Horsley, Jesus and the Spiral of Violence: Popular Jewish Resistance in Roman Palestine (San Francisco, Harper and Row, 1987), pp. 167^ Michael Zweig (ed.), Religion and Economic Justice (Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1991). Also Christian Faith and the World Economy , pp. 8-1073 Duchrow and Giick, Economic Alternatives, p. 12.

74 For the relationship between democracy, Christianity and the market, see John W. dc Gruchy, Christianity and Democracy (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995).

75 Christian Faith and the World Economy, p. 35.

76 Douglas M. Mccks, God the Economist; The Doctrine of God and Political Economy (Minneapolis, Fortress Press, 1973).

77 See my Theology of Reconstruction (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 199Z), pp. 76-196.

78 Jorge Pixley, 'Reimaging God's Kingdom After the Crisis in Socialism.' A paper read in the Department of Religious studies, University of Cape Town, March 1995.

79 Franz Farion, Wretched of the Earth {London, Penguin Books, 1983), p. 188.

80 Talcott Parsons, introduction', in Max Weber, The Sociology of Religion (Boston, Beacon Press, 1964), pp* xxxiiif.

81 See Leonardo and Clodovis Boff, Liberation Theology: From Dialogue to Con-frontat ion (New York, Harper and Row, 1986), pp. 84-8; 'Doctrinal Congregation Criticises Brazilian Theologian's Book', Origins, vol. 14, no. 42 {4 April 1985}, pp. 683-7, Also Harvey Cox, The Silencing of Leonardo Boff (Oak Park, IL, Meyer Stone, 1988),

82 Gabriel Setiloane, African Theology: An Introduction (Johannesburg, Skotaville, 1986}, pp. 9-16.

83 H. Richard Niebuhr, The Meaning of Revelation {New York, Macmillan, 1986), p. 115. I am grateful to Dirkie Smit, who in his 'Die Waarheid en Versoeningskommissie - Tentatiewe Kerktike en Teologiese Perspektiewe' (an unpublished paper), has drawn on Niebuhr to stress the importance of storytelling in the South African context,

84 Niebuhr, The Meaning of Revelation^ p. 109.

85 Rosemary Radford Ruether, Women Guides: Readings Toward a Feminist Theology (Boston, Beacon Press, 1985), pp. xii, 247.

86 In personal conversation with Ellen Kuzwayo, 16 October 1994. See also her book, Call Me Woman (Johannesburg, David Philip, 1985).

87 Eric Foner, 'The Story of American Freedom', 34th T. B. Davie Memorial Lecture, 20 July 1994, University of Cape Town.

88 Nelson Mandela, Long Walk To Freedom (Randburg, Macdonald Purneil, 1994), pp. 616-17.

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  • Layton
    What are some of the books basil moore wrote on black theology?
    7 months ago

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