Scholasticism was a heterogeneous movement. Even during the thirteenth century, significant divergences became evident within the movement, as may be seen by comparing the writings of Aquinas, Bonaventure and Duns Scotus, representing the characteristic approaches of the early Dominican school, the early Franciscan school and the later Franciscan school respectively.
By the late medieval period, at least nine major schools had developed within the movement, reflecting considerable diversity in relation to both methods and doctrines. Two schools of thought are of especial importance in relation to the late medieval situation: the via moderna, which designates the school of thought deriving from William of Ockham, whose leading late medieval representative was the Tübingen theologian Gabriel Biel; and a loose body of opinion or theological tendency, which cannot be regarded as a 'school' in the strict sense of the word, which favoured more radically Augustinian approaches to the doctrines of justification and predestination. This tendency, sometimes referred to as the schola Augustiniana moderna, is associated with writers such as Gregory of Rimini. However, it occurs in a number of different forms which are not readily susceptible to categorization.
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