Secondary Sources

Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Chapters 1, 4, 7, and 8 are excellent on the nineteenth century. See the very helpful bibliographical essays on 380-399.

Cantor, Geoffrey. Michael Faraday: Sandemanian and Scientist. London: Macmillan, 1991. A fascinating study of the great nineteenth-century scientist and how his conservative Christian beliefs and his science interacted in numerous important ways.

Chadwick, Owen. The Secularization of the European Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975. Part 2 includes superb brief accounts of the ways in which secular science and historical studies challenged religious belief and theology in the nineteenth century.

Gillespie, Neal C. Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 19 79. Gillespie shows how theological and positivist ideas coexisted in Darwin's mind as he worked on the Origin.

Gillispie, Charles Coulston. Genesis and Geology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1951. The author demonstrates the interpenetration of theology and geological science in the early nineteenth century.

Gregory, Frederick. Nature Lost? Natural Science and German Theological Traditions of the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. A valuable study of the variety of responses to natural science by several important German theologians - and the loss of nature from theological discourse.

Lindberg, David C., and Ronald L. Numbers (eds.). God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Chapters 12 through 15 deal with aspects of the nineteenth-century encounter.

Livingstone, David N. Darwin's Forgotten Defenders: The Encounter between Evangelical Theology and Evolutionary Thought. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987. Demonstrates that many evangelical Christian theologians and scientists reconciled their conservative theology to Darwin's theories.

Moore, James R. The Post-Darwinian Controversies: A Study of the Protestant Struggle to Come to Terms with Darwin in Great Britain and America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. The most complete and authoritative study of the Anglo-American theological response to Darwin.

Turner, Frank M. Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974. A valuable study of the late nineteenth-century critique of scientific naturalism and positivism and the search for new spiritual alternatives. Welch, Claude. Dispelling Some Myths about the Split between Theology and Science in the Nineteenth Century. In Religion and Science: History, Method, Dialogue, ed. W. Mark Richardson and Wesley J. Wildman. New York: Routledge, 1996.

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