Notes

1 Leonard Huxley, Life and Letters of T. H. Huxley III, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1900), 251-252.

2 T. H. Huxley, Collected Essays II (London: Macmillan, 1893), 52.

3 C. A. Russell writes, "In their bitter battle for scientific hegemony the Victorian scientific naturalists fought largely in vain. But in establishing their myth of an enduring conflict between religion and science they were successful beyond their wildest expectations." See "The Conflict Metaphor and Its Social Origins," in Science and Christian Belief I (1989), 26. Among the best accounts and critiques of the "warfare" thesis, see the following: James R. Moore, The Post-Darwinian Controversies: A Study of the Protestant Struggle to Come to Terms with Darwin in Great Britain and America 18701900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979); David Lindberg and Ronald Numbers, "Beyond War and Peace: A Reappraisal of the Encounter between Christianity and Science," Church History 55 (1986): 338-354; David N. Livingstone, Darwin's Forgotten Defenders: The Encounter between Evangelical Theology and Evolutionary Thought (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1987); John Hedley Brooke, Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991) , chap. 1; Frank M. Turner, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), chap. 1; and Claude Welch, "Dispelling Some Myths about the Split between Theology and Science in the Nineteenth Century," in Religion and Science: History, Method, Dialogue, ed. W. Mark Richardson and Wesley J. Wildman (New York: Routledge, 1996).

4 Alvar Ellegard, Darwin and the General Reader: The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution in the British Periodical Press, 1859-1872 (Gothenburg: Elanders Boktryckeni Aktiebolag, 1958), 337. Also, see Moore, The Post-Darwinian Controversies, 84.

5 For recent efforts to describe the various ways of envisioning the complex relationships between theology and science, relevant to the nineteenth-century situation, see Ian G. Barbour, "Ways of Relating Science and Religion," in Religion in an Age of Science, The Gifford Lectures 1889-1891, vol. 1, chap. 1 (New York: Harper & Row, 1990); Frederick Gregory, Nature Lost? Natural Science and German Theological Traditions of the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992); and John Hedley Brooke, "Interaction between Science and Religion: Some Preliminary Considerations," in Brooke, Science and Religion; also, consult Brooke's valuable bibliography on 351-357. For a contemporary discussion of the various ways of relating theology and science, see Niels Henrik Gregerson and J. Wentzel van Huyssteen, eds., Rethinking Theology and Science: Six Models for the Current Dialogue (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1998).

6 David Friedrich Strauss, Der alte und der neue Glaube: Ein Bekentniss (Leipzig: Hirzel, 1872), 175.

7 William Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology, vol. 1 (London: Pickering, 1836), 596.

8 For a fine essay on the social implications of natural theology, see Frank M. Turner, "The Secularization of the Social Vision of British Natural Theology," in Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 101-127.

9 Henry Drummond, Natural Law in the Spiritual World (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1883), 11.

10 Drummond, Natural Law, 52.

12 John Henry Newman, "Duties of the Church toward Knowledge," in The Idea of a University [1873] (New Haven, Conn., 1996), 154.

13 Newman, "Duties of the Church," 154.

15 For helpful, concise accounts of the major themes in Ritschl's theology, see Claude Welch, Protestant Thought in the Nineteenth Century: Volume 2, 1870-1914 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985), 1-30; and James C. Livingston, Modern Christian Thought: The Enlightenment and the Nineteenth Century (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), chap. 11.

16 For brief overviews of the themes in Herrmann's theology, see Welch, Protestant Thought, 44-54; and Livingston, Modern Christian Thought, 281-286.

17 For an excellent treatment of Herrmann's doctrine of the independent, incommensurable spheres of theology and science, and its significant legacy in excluding nature from the theological enterprise, see Gregory, Nature Lost? part 3 and epilogue, 199-264.

18 For the full account of Baden Powell's various forays into Christian apologetics as they related to science, see Pietro Corsi, Science and Religion: Baden Powell and the Anglican Debate, 1800-1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

19 Baden Powell, The Connexion of Natural and Divine Truth (Oxford: J. W. Parker, 1839), 1.

20 Frederick Temple, Lord Bishop of Exeter, The Relation between Religion and Science http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/17194 (accessed October 12, 2009), 114.

21 Temple, Religion and Science, 114-115.

23 Aubrey Moore, Science and the Faith: Essays on Apologetic Subjects (London, 1889), 87.

24 Moore, Science and the Faith, 184-185.

25 Aubrey Moore, "The Christian Doctrine of God," in Lux Mundi, ed. Charles Gore (London, 1889), 43-44.

26 I owe this judgment about Moore to J.H. Brooke.

2 7 Ira V. Brown, Lyman Abbott (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,

28 Lyman Abbott, The Evolution of Christianity (London, 1892), 66.

29 Abbott, The Evolution of Christianity, 249.

33 Lyman Abbott, The Theology of an Evolutionist (London, 1897), 188-189.

34 Abbott, Evolution of Christianity, op. cit., 258.

35 For the best treatment in English of Zöckler's work on the relations between theology and science, on which this account is dependent, see Frederick Gregory's Nature Lost? chap. 4.

36 Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (New York: Scribner, Armstrong and Co., 1872), 56-59, 624.

3 7 Jonathan Wells, Charles Hodge's Critique of Darwinism (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon

Press, 1988), 52. Wells's exposition of Hodge's method and argument has been very helpful and is recommended to anyone exploring the subject of Hodge on science and theology.

38 Charles Hodge, What Is Darwinism? (New York: Scribner, Armstrong and Co., 1874), 144-145.

39 For a full exposition of Hodge on the argument to design, see Wells, Charles Hodge's Critique, 52.

40 James McCosh and George Dickie, Typical Forms and Special Ends in Creation (New York, 185 7), 5.

41 McCosh and Dickie, Typical Forms, 1.

42 James McCosh, The Method of Divine Government, Physical and Moral (Edinburgh, 1850), 121.

43 James McCosh, Christianity and Positivism (New York, 1875), 42.

44 McCosh, Christianity and Positivism, 90.

45 Ibid.

46 Wilhelm Herrmann, Die Religion im Verhaltnis zum Welterkennen und zur Sittlichkeit (Halle, 1879), 14. See, Gregory, Nature Lost? 231ff. Also, see W. Herrmann, "Faith as Ritschl Defined It," in Faith and Morals (London, 1904), 7-62.

47 Henri Bergson, Études, February 20, 1911. Cited in A. Dansette, Religious History of Modern France, vol. 2 (New York, 1961), 317.

48 T. H. Huxley, Collected Essays (London, 1893), 164.

49 James Ward, Naturalism and Agnosticism, 4th ed. (London, 1915), 351.

50 See James Iverach, Christianity and Evolution (London, 1894); and, Aubrey Moore, "Mental Evolution in Man," in Essays Scientific and Philosophical (London, 1890).

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