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1 This thesis did not meet with universal agreement. It was strongly criticized by Stephan Yavorsky in The Stone of Belief (1728), and even more so by Theophilact Lopatinsky in his unpublished retort to Prokopovich's book, On God's Unbearable Yoke. These two critics argued that while both salvation and justification are possible without works, sins are not simply non-imputed but are actually taken away by justification.

2 See Platon, Metropolitan of Moscow, The Orthodox Doctrine of the Apostolic Eastern Church; or, a Compendium of Christian Theology (in Greek, 1785; trans., New York: AMS Press, 1969).

3 Vassiliy Mikhailovich Drozdov, canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1994.

4 Archimandrite Philaret's first writings included Differences between the Eastern and Western Churches in the Teaching of Doctrine, composed for the Empress Elizabeth Alekseevna (1811); and also a review of theological disciplines (1814).

5 See Genesis 1:26.

6 Glukharyov: this is a different Archimandrite Makarius than the more influential Bulgakov referenced below. (Ed.)

7 Socinianism is an early, sixteenth-century form of rationalistic theology named after its founders, Laelius and Faustus Socinus. Its adherents believed that death should be seen as something natural and not as a punishment for sin, with the implication that sin was not so serious after all, so that Jesus' death should not be viewed as any kind of atonement or satisfaction. They believed also that Christ was not the pre-existent Son of God, and that he had not existed before his earthly birth; nevertheless, he should be adored because of his adoption and exaltation by God, and imitated by those who wished to live a simple, disciplined, and loving life. Finally, the Socinians regarded the sacraments as "signs and not seals," and considered that the church was present wherever people lived in loving fellowship. The Socinian movement became particularly well established in Poland until its banishment in 1658. (Ed.)

8 The famous monastery of Optina Pustyn is situated in Kaluga Oblast, a region in central Russia, and dates back to the Middle Ages. It declined in the eighteenth century, but was revived by Metropolitan Platon, who encouraged the monks to share with the wider church their ascetic life and theology. The monastery pioneered a kind of spiritual mentorship scheme, where particularly holy monks - the "elders," or

"startsi" - would disciple younger monks or laymen. In the course of the nineteenth century, the monastery received a number of pilgrims, including Ivan Kireevsky, who founded the Slavophile School, and also writers such as Leontyev, Tolstoy, Gogol, Dostoevsky, and Solovyov. (Ed.)


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