At the end is no completed eschatology, but a new question that requires the ongoing existence of Christianity in the world to pursue it and to bring it to an end. Schleiermacher's theology leaves two distinct threads to be gathered up and united only by a history still outstanding in the future. One thread is Schleiermacher's personal conviction concerning the universal love of God directed by wisdom for the redemption of the world. The other thread is the open question of the Trinity. It is a question for further theological study insofar as it conceptualizes and articulates the way in which the history of God in Christ and in the church is an ongoing story. The history of Christian experience and the historical position of the theologian are open to novel insights and revisions because it is ultimately God's determination of love and wisdom that drives the story. Perhaps herein lies the meaning of Schleiermacher's self-designation as a "Herrnhuter of a higher order": the unity between his personal conviction regarding the universal scope of redemption and the openness to a future of experiencing the love and wisdom which make redemption real.


1 Schleiermacher was concerned with ecumenically uniting both Lutheran and Reformed traditions in one system of theology. His intention is clearly represented in the lengthy original German title (Der christliche Glaube nach den Grundsätzen der Evangelischen Kirche im Zusammenhange dargestellt) that is unfortunately not rendered in the considerably shorter English translation (The Christian Faith). All references to The Christian Faith are from the English translation, ed. H. R. MacKintosh and J. S. Stewart, trans. D. M. Baillie (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1999), and abbreviated in parenthetical citations as CF.

2 Karl Barth's "Nachwort" is included in the anthology of Schleiermacher's work: Schleiermacher-Auswahl, ed. Heinz Bolli (Munich: Siebenstern, 1968), 290-312; the English translation is "Concluding Unscientific Postscript on Schleiermacher," trans. George Hunsinger, in The Theology of Schleiermacher.Lectures at Göttingen, Winter Semester of 1923/24, ed. Dietrich Ritschl (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1982), 261-277.

3 See Schleiermacher's proposal entitled "Gelegentliche Gedanken über Universitäten in deutschem Sinn," in Kritische Gesamtausgabe, ed. Hermann Fischer et al., vol. I/6, ed. Dirk Schmidt (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1998), 15-100 (hereafter cited as KGA); as well as proposals by Fichte, Schelling, Steffens, and Wilhelm von Humboldt in Die Idee der deutschen Universität, ed. Ernst Anrich (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1956); English translation, Occasional Thoughts on Universities in the German Sense with an Appendix Regarding a University Soon to be Established, trans. Terrence N. Tice and Edwina Lawler (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon Press, 1991).

4 Letter from April 5, 1783, in Aus Schleiermacher's Leben in Briefen, ed. Ludwig Jonas and Wilhelm Dilthey, 4 vols., 2nd ed. (Berlin: Reimer, 1860-1863), 1:294.

5 The German texts discussed in this paragraph are Friedrich Schleiermacher, Vorlesungen über die Dialektik, ed. Andreas Arndt, in KGA II/10.1-2 (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2002); idem, Dialektik (1822), ed. Rudolf Odebrecht (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs Verlag, 1942; reprint, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1976); idem, Dialektik, ed. Ludwig Jonas, in Sämmtliche Werke III/4.2 (Berlin: G. Reimer, 1839); idem, Friedrich Schleiermacher: Dialektik, 2 vols., Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft no. 1529 (Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 2001).; and idem, Dialectic or, The Art of Doing Philosophy. A Study Edition of the 1811 Notes, trans. Terrence N. Tice (Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1996).

6 The critical edition of the text is currently available in two volumes of the Kritische Gesamtausgabe of Schleiermacher's works published by de Gruyter in Berlin. A more accessible prose rendition of the 1822 notes was written by Rudolf Odebrecht and published in 1942. A recent two-volume paperback version by Suhrkamp is edited by Manfred Frank. The only edition currently available in English is Terrence Tice's translation of the earliest 1811 lectures, which were delivered well before the key insight of 1822.

7 Philosophical ethics, for Schleiermacher, is the study of the principles of history: in short, a philosophy of human agency in history. As such, ethics has to do with the fundamental reason-nature relationship that Schleiermacher distinguishes into four areas of human agency: church, academy, politics, and free sociality (freie Geselligkeit).

8 Schleiermacher, Dialektik (1822), in Odebrecht, 270.

9 Friedrich Schleiermacher, Hermeneutics and Criticism, and Other Writings, ed. and trans. Andrew Bowie, Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 5. Bowie's text is a translation of Schleiermacher's Hermeneutik und Kritik, with an appendix of texts from the philosophy of language and introduced by Manfred Frank, 6th ed., Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 211 (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1977).

10 Schleiermacher, Hermeneutics and Criticism, 7.

11 The classic passage is Lindbeck's classification of Schleiermacher as an "experien-tial-expressivist." See George A. Lindbeck, The Nature of Doctrine: Religion and Theology in a Postliberal Age (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984), 16.

12 Schleiermacher appropriates Leibniz's notion of individual substances as "monads," but configures them in such a way that they have "windows" to each other.

13 Schleiermacher, Dialektik (1822), in Odebrecht, 270.

14 Still available as Plato, Sämtliche Werke, 10 vols., Insel Taschenbuch 1401-1410 (Frankfurt: Insel, 1991).

15 Friedrich Schleiermacher, "Ueber Kolosser 1, 15-20," in KGA I/8: 195-226; and English translation by Esther D. Reed and Alan Braley, "On Colossians 1:15-20 (1832)," New Athenaeum/Neues Athenaeum 5 (1998): 48-80.

16 Friedrich Schleiermacher, On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers, ed. and trans. Richard Crouter, Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 23; and the German original of the first edition is: Über die Religion. Reden an die Gebildeten unter ihren Verächtern (1799), ed. Günter Meckenstock (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1999).

17 Friedrich Schleiermacher, Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums zum Behuf einleitender Vorlesungen (1810/30), ed. Heinrich Scholz, Bibliothek Klassischer Texte (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1993); and English translation is: Brief Outline of Theology as a Field of Study, trans. Terrence N. Tice, Schleiermacher Studies and Translations 1 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon Press, 1990), 58. (Subsequent references to this translation will be indicated by BO, followed by paragraph number.) The transcript of these lectures by David Friedrich Strauss has been published as Theologische Enzyklopädie (1831/32): Nachschrift von David Friedrich Strauß, ed. Walter Sachs (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1987).

18 Friedrich Schleiermacher, The Life of Jesus, trans. S. Maclean Gilmour, ed. and intro. Jack C. Verheyden, Lives of Jesus series (Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Fortress, 1975; reprint, Mifflintown, Pa.: Sigler Press, 1997).

19 Friedrich Schleiermacher, On the Glaubenslehre: Two Letters to Dr. Lücke, trans. James Duke and Francis Fiorenza, AAR Texts and Translations 3 (Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1981), 59 (second letter).

20 David Friedrich Strauss, The Christ of Faith and the Jesus of History: A Critique of Schleiermacher's The Life of Jesus, trans. and intro. Leander E. Keck, Lives of Jesus series (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977).

21 Verheyden, "Introduction," in Schleiermacher's Life of Jesus, xxxi.

22 "So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the word of Christ." See index of scriptural citations in the CF for references to Romans 10:17.

23 Friedrich Schleiermacher, "Über den Gegensatz zwischen der Sabellianischen und der Athanasianischen Vorstellung von der Trinität (1822)," in KGA I/12: 223-306.


Helmer, Christine, Christiane Kranich, and Birgit Rehme-Iffert (eds.). Die Liebe zum Wissen: Philosophie und Theologie bei Friedrich Schleiermacher. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006.

Helmer, Christine, with Marjorie Suchocki, John Quiring, and Katie Goetz (eds.). Schleiermacher and Whitehead: Open Systems in Dialogue. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2005.

Herms, Eilert. Menschsein im Werden: Studien zu Schleiermacher. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003.

Kelsey, Catherine L. Thinking about Christ with Schleiermacher. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2003.

Lamm, Julia. Schleiermacher as Plato Scholar. The Journal of Religion 80, no. 2 (2000): 206-239.

Marina, Jacqueline (ed.). Cambridge Companion to Schleiermacher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Marina, Jacqueline. Transformation of the Self in the Thought of Schleiermacher. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Schmidt, Sarah. Die Konstruktion des Endlichen: Schleiermachers Philosophie der Wechselwirkung. Quellen und Studien zur Philosophie 67. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2005.

Tice, N. Terrence. Schleiermacher. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press, 2006.

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