Notes

1 This thesis did not meet with universal agreement. It was strongly criticized by Stephan Yavorsky in The Stone of Belief (1728), and even more so by Theophilact Lopatinsky in his unpublished retort to Prokopovich's book, On God's Unbearable Yoke. These two critics argued that while both salvation and justification are possible without works, sins are not simply non-imputed but are actually taken away by justification. 2 See Platon, Metropolitan of Moscow, The Orthodox Doctrine of the...

Part Ii

7 Natural Science and Theology 141 James C. Livingston 8 Romanticism and Pantheism 165 Julia A. Lamm 9 Roman Catholic Theology T bingen 187 Bradford E. Hinze 10 Russian Theology 214 Olga Nesmiyanova 11 Evangelicalism 235 David W. Bebbington 12 Kenotic Christology 251 David R. Law 13 Mediating Anglicanism Maurice, Gore, and Temple 280 Ulrike Link-Wieczorek 14 Mediating Theology in Germany 301 Matthias Gockel 15 America Confessional Theologies 319 James D. Bratt 16 America Transcendentalism to...

Secondary

The secondary literature on Kierkegaard is enormous. The following is a brief selection. Elrod, John W. Kierkegaard and Christendom. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press, 1981. Evans, C. Stephen. Passionate Reason. Making Sense of Kierkegaard's Philosophical Fragments. Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1992. Evans, C. Stephen. Kierkegaard's Ethic of Love. Divine Commands and Moral Obligations. Oxford Oxford University Press, 2004. Evans, C. Stephen. Kierkegaard on Faith and the Self....

The Statesmans Manual

Perhaps this should be no surprise before Coleridge had even met Wordsworth, he had lectured on Politics and Religion,80 and in 1816 he had published his first Lay Sermon, The Statesman's Manual, or The Bible the Best Guide to Political Skill and Foresight.81 His mature views on the Bible, contained in the Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit,82 are of interest, as he both is one of the earliest mediators of German higher criticism to Anglophone society, and offers a carefully constructed defense...

The Transitional Period 18561867

With the death of Protosov in 1856, and in the previous year that of his patron, Nicholas I, Russian theology began to change once again in style, approach, and methods of narration. The period from 1856 to 1867 can be regarded as transitional, when Protosov tendencies in academic theology were still strong, but changes were becoming not only more noticeable but also more necessary. The first sign of the new regime was the recommencement in 1858 of the project of translating the Bible into...

Conclusion

It is the fate of some major philosophers for their generative yet unsystematic work to be corrected and turned into a system by a successor. Descartes' arguments in Meditations (1641) were corrected and systematized by Spinoza in Ethics (1677). Leibniz's arguments in a variety of papers and articles were corrected and systematized by Wolff in a series of Vern nftige Gedanken (17121725). Kant's philosophy, distributed over a wide body of texts, was corrected and systematized not once but twice,...

Intellectual Formation

The son of a W rttemburg civil servant, Hegel was educated at the Gymnasium in Stuttgart and the Evangelische Stift at T bingen with the intention of entering the Lutheran ministry.1 His student contemporaries included Schelling and H lderlin. On completion of his studies, Hegel did not seek ordination but worked as a private tutor in Berne and Frankfurt before taking up a post in 1799 at the University of Jena. During this time he completed the Phenomenology of Spirit. On leaving Jena in 1808,...

The controversial issues

Jacobi was convinced that Lessing's Spinozism, although seemingly non-doctrinal, in fact rested on the doctrines of materialism, determinism, and atheism consequently, not only was it inimical to faith, but also it undermined the possibility of philosophy because it leads in the end to what Jacobi termed nihilism. Materialism. Phrased more positively, a nihilo nihil fit means that everything must be able to be explained in terms of efficient causality-that is to say, in terms of a prior,...

Visions of

We have already noted that in his concept of the Logos, Coleridge is postulating some sort of distinction in God - deus idem et alter, to borrow a favorite phrase of his. Here, in the idea of alterity, distinction in unity, Coleridge found a paradigmatic case of how the one and the many did not need to be opposed, but could be held together. Earlier I did no more than list the jumble of ideas that feed into this concept it is now time to outline Coleridge's analysis of the doctrine of the...

Romantic Possibilities

We may trace something of the cultural shift from the Enlightenment to Romanticism in microcosm in the story of Coleridge's early years. The French Revolution brought the troublesome fact of evil squarely before the face of an optimistic philosophy what started as the overthrow of ancient irrationalism by a new polity built on reason degenerated into the Terror and the proud proclamation of liberty and equality that removed a king resulted only in an emperor. Coleridge, like others, was...

The Integral Coherence of Theology and Science

Some recent studies of theology in the nineteenth century give scant attention to natural theology and its changing course, as if the arguments of Hume and Kant had declared it dead. In fact, natural theology and the argument from design prospered, especially in Britain and North America. And the natural theologians perceived a basic coherence between their theology and science. William Paley's Natural Theology (1802) did live on well into the latter decades of the nineteenth century, though...

Idealism

Hegel's philosophy can be approached by assessing his reaction to his immediate predecessors and contemporaries. Kant's distinction between the world of noumena (things in themselves) and the world of phenomena (appearances) attracted the criticism of later thinkers. It was unsustainable, in part because things in themselves could only be affirmed as they were known. How, then, could we posit the existence of a determinate world the contents of which remained unknowable Along with Fichte and...

World Religions

In assessing Christianity as the absolute religion, Hegel attempts to place it dia-lectically in relation to other faiths. While his descriptions - variant readings of the world religions are offered in the Phenomenology of Spirit and in the later Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion - have now been overtaken by developments in the study of the history of religions, his work nonetheless shows an impressive attention to detail and sources. He discerns a progression of religious forms in the...

The Vocation of the Poet

This analysis did not, of course, come instantaneously to the young Romantic Coleridge, and it seems that he was content for some time to accept the tensions and celebrate the new life that he saw all around - as may be seen in the Conversation Poems, and during his early friendship with William Wordsworth. From such a position, pantheism was an obviously attractive theological step, and Coleridge and Wordsworth would discuss Spinoza together often whilst working on Lyrical Ballads.21 Pantheism...

Kierkegaards Achievement

It is hardly surprising that a thinker who placed such great emphasis on the task of each single individual becoming a self before God and who abhorred the idea of attracting followers should not have established a school or movement. Kierkegaard can hardly be said to have created a theological agenda. What he has bequeathed to theology is a series of impulses that have fed into theological and philosophical thinking. But it was not for professional theologians that Kierkegaard wrote his works,...

Life and Influences

Kierkegaard was born into an age of significant industrial and political change. During his lifetime, Denmark took its first steps toward industrialization and democratization. In 1819 Denmark's first steamship went into service, and in 1841 the government financed the construction of Denmark's first railway between Altona and Kiel. In 1849 the transition was made from an absolute to a constitutional monarchy under Frederick VII (1848-1863). Kierkegaard's age was the Golden Age of Danish...

Poet or That Which Once Seemd He

In a note written on the fly-leaf of one of his own copies of The Statesman's Manual, Coleridge complained about his critical reception his work was a motley Patch-work, or Farrago of heterogeneous Effusions he was the wild eccentric Genius that has published nothing but fragments & splendid Tirades.84 The criticisms are, I suppose, understandable Coleridge's prose can meander alarmingly from subject to subject, and he is constantly hinting at hidden depths, to be revealed in works in the...

Conclusion For Liberal Theology

In the end, it may not be satisfying to speak of these four figures as representative of a Catholic T bingen school, that is, if one is looking for a unified method and doctrinal consistency on certain basic questions. However, if one is willing to work with a wider definition of a theological school as a research program with certain animating questions that occupied the attention of a group of scholars, then one can rightly identify these four as core members of a Catholic T bingen school....

Aesthetics

Having considered in the Critique of Pure Reason how truth claims are to be tested publicly, and having considered in Groundwork, the Critique of Practical Reason, and Metaphysics of Morals how moral claims are to be tested publicly, Kant considered in the Critique of Judgement how claims about beauty and the sublime are to be tested publicly. Like the others, these discussions have a significant relation to, and bearing upon, theological topics. Drawing on the writings of Burke, Kant was...

Ascetic theology St Ignatius

Although the Slavophiles to some extent were repeating the patristic and ecclesiastic theses of 1840s-1850s theology in the academy, their alternative secular theology was nevertheless offering a new approach. In this they differed also from that other strand of nineteenth-century theology, the monastic ascetic tradition. This difference is especially noticeable in contrast with the works of St. Ignatius (1807-1867, canonized 1998), who is representative of ascetic theology of the same period....

The Hegelians

In one rather obvious way, Hegel's thesis was falsified, or at least rendered in need of qualification, by the subsequent history of philosophy and theology. The lack of an overwhelming consensus in favor of his position suggested that philosophy had not reached the final point of its evolution. The presence of radical disagreement called into question the historical optimism of his position, and even in his own later writings one senses some pessimism regarding the future of philosophy and...

Introduction

Between the emergence of Aufkl rung philosophies and the official imposition of Neo-Scholastic theology, amidst social and political revolutions creating decentralized national and regional bureaucracies and the rise of ultramontanism advancing Roman bureaucratic centralization, and at the crossroad where the processes of secularization and ongoing confessional polemics took place, Catholic theologians in Germany during the nineteenth century were forced to take a stand. In 1812, one group of...

Skepticism and Scripture

Newman's most powerful assault on the adequacy of Scripture occurred in late September 1838. Tract 85, Lectures on the Scripture Proof of the Doctrines of the Church (reprinted in 18 71 in Discussions and Arguments), constituted the harshest attack against the religious and historical authority of the Scriptures written by any Church of England author in the second quarter of the nineteenth century The tract originated in Newman's impatience with evangelical charges that the Tractarian view of...

David Fergusson

Hegel (1770-1831) can lay claim to being the most influential philosopher of the nineteenth century. Despite the elusiveness of his thought and a complex prose style, Hegel's work shaped the output of later thinkers as diverse as Strauss, Kierkegaard, Feuerbach, Marx, and the British idealists. This influence has extended to philosophy and theology well into the twentieth century. Even where his philosophical presuppositions have not been adopted, his concep-tuality, insights, and...

Dialogue Hermeneutical Considerations in the Production of Knowledge

The question of intersubjectivity is constitutive of Schleiermacher's preoccupation with the production of knowledge. Although the Dialektik is mainly concerned with epistemological and transcendental issues, it hints at its hermeneutical presuppositions in the two criteria that Schleiermacher establishes for knowledge, namely, correspondence and identity of process. An important question concerns how testing of these criteria can take place in order to gain certainty that thinking is indeed...

The Theological Critique of Scientific Naturalism and Positivism

The growing prestige and authority of the sciences in the latter decades of the nineteenth century provoked a broad cultural reaction against the all-encompassing claims of scientific positivism, especially its materialism and determinism. One aspect of this wider reaction was a series of philosophical and theological critiques of the foundational assumptions and the pretensions of an all-embracing unified science, but carried out in the service of theistic alternatives. Several were considered...

Ecclesiastical Perfection

A second element also leading toward skepticism that marked Newman's religious thought from the 1830s onward was a tendency toward ecclesiastical perfectionism. Newman was deeply troubled as to where the true church existed in this life. By the late 1820s he eschewed the evangelical concept of an invisible church of the saved saints, but he also found difficulty in locating the true church in any contemporary visible ecclesiastical institution. During the 1830s he began developing his own image...

The Kingdom of God and the Identity of

The kingdom of God, the central motif in the teachings and mission of Jesus of Nazareth, became a focal point for many Catholic T bingen theologians. Beginning in the eighteenth and throughout the nineteenth centuries, numerous efforts were made among Protestant and Catholic philosophers and theologians to champion the moral character of Jesus' message of the kingdom of God. In the wake of these attempts,7 when Drey and his Catholic T bingen colleagues addressed the kingdom of God, they...

Imagination

This higher realism required a new mode of understanding and interpretation. The Romantics focused on the role of imagination in forming concepts -something Kant had left undeveloped in his first critique. The imagination marks that transitional stage between the receptive sensibility and spontaneous understanding. Keep in mind that the Romantics viewed the world as an organic, living system. It follows that the imagination for them was both receptive, in that it takes up the forces that acted...

The Essence of Catholicism Living Tradition Incarnational Church

The identity of Catholicism, the essence (das Wesen) in Drey's words, concerns for these theologians the visible, physical, and institutional character of the Church and the living dynamic character of tradition. What subsequent generations of Catholic theologians would describe in terms of the Church as Corpus Christi, sacramental, and communio was articulated in terms of the kingdom of God and the incarnation of Jesus Christ. For Drey, not only is the kingdom of God the dominant motif of...

The Second Authorship Kierkegaards Authorship from 1846 to 1855

With the publication of Concluding Unscientific Postscript and Two Ages, Kierkegaard brought to a close a five-year period of remarkable literary productivity. He now intended to wind up his writing and seek ordination. Troubled, however, about doubts concerning his fitness for the ministry and increasingly concerned at the unchristian nature of contemporary Christianity, he abandoned this plan and returned to writing. From 1846 onward, however, his writing takes on a different quality. He...

Frank M Turner

It is a fine point whether John Henry Newman (1801-1890) should be considered a theologian. He was a fellow of Oriel College, an ordained priest of the Church of England, and Vicar of St. Mary the Virgin in Oxford. Later, after converting to Roman Catholicism and being ordained a Roman Catholic priest, he established the Oratory of St. Philip Neri located in Birmingham. In the 1850s for several years he presided over the Catholic University in Dublin. He then returned to Birmingham for the rest...

Passionate Thinker

Valdemar Ammundsen, an early commentator on Kierkegaard's work, once remarked, Where Kierkegaard was wrong, that goes on his account. Where Kierkegaard was right, the bill comes to us.1 We can rephrase this comment even more pointedly Where Kierkegaard was wrong, that is a matter between him and God. Where Kierkegaard was right, that is a matter between God and each and every one of us. It is his ability to confront the reader - you and me -with the deepest issues of human existence, and to...

James C Livingston

In this chapter we explore the various ways in which nineteenth-century theologians responded to quite extraordinary advances in the sciences and to their theological and larger cultural significance. These sciences included not only geology, biology, and physics, but also the new social sciences of anthropology, sociology, psychology, and, most importantly, historical-critical research. At least initially, efforts toward some form of theological reconciliation with science were predominant....

Types of Mediation and Complementarity between Theology and Science

Nineteenth-century theologians' dominant response to scientific advances was one of openness and dialogue, of attempts at one or another form of mediation and reconciliation. While sharing the same objective, these responses often were distinct, and they resist being forced into exact categories. Nonetheless, they do reveal common features that distinguish them from other types of response. The three theologians here used to exemplify this response were orthodox Christians, believed in the...

Literary influences on secular theology

As the century progressed, secular theology continued in its established anti-Scholastic vein, concentrating now with peculiar genius and force on Christology and anthropology. The field of secular theology in the latter part of the century was populated mostly by literary figures, philosophers, and publicists, who presented their theological ideas wrapped in an expressive art form. These included Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881), LeoTolstoy (1828-1910), Konstantin Leontyev (1831-1891), and...

Theologians and Their Audiences Texts and Their Contexts

To paint the background landscape for the early generations of Catholic T bingen theologians, one must take care in portraying the struggles of the life of the mind among theologians and philosophers, and natural scientists and poets, that marked this period. But no less important are the struggles of the life of the body and the body politic, where judgments and decisions of state and commerce intersected with the realities of church, education, and the everyday existence of friends and...

Mysticism and Godtalk

When Schleiermacher and his Romantic friends said that one religion without God can be better than another with God,45 they were not so much denying a personal God as they were rejecting the idols of the theisms of their day - the arid god of deism, the projection of a self-satisfied bourgeois society, the first principle of philosophy. In that sense, their reluctance to use the word God can be viewed as a form of apophatic (negative) mysticism. They realized, in other words, the perils of...

Olga Nesmiyanova

Theology in nineteenth-century Russia was a complex and multilayered phenomenon, consisting of several different schools all with their own approaches and styles. Of these, three particular streams can be identified the systematic teaching of theology in the academy the spiritual-didactic theology of the ascetic monastic tradition and, from the mid-nineteenth century, a new brand of secular theology combining elements of philosophy and literary polemics. Of these streams, the theology of the...

Christian Doctrine

The doctrines of the Christian faith are (re)interpreted in light of fundamental Hegelian themes. The dialectical movement in Hegel's philosophy from thesis to antithesis to synthesis suggests a triadic pattern for which the doctrine of the Trinity proves highly congenial. In begetting the Son, the Father goes forth into another. There is then a return to the Father in the union of a third, the Holy Spirit. This peculiarly Christian dogma grasps the movement and self-differentiation in God...

Theological Accommodations to Science

In the often zealous effort to accommodate theology to the new developments in science, numerous nineteenth-century theologians and clergy seriously distorted their theology, the science that they were appropriating, or both. One form of accommodation can be seen in the work of Baden Powell (1796-1860), an Anglican priest, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford from 182 7 to 1860, a lifelong theological apologist, and contributor of the essay On the Study of the Evidences of Christianity to...

The Critique of Natural Theology

Natural theology from the age of Newton through the mid-nineteenth century played a major role in British religious thought. Writers such as John Ray, William Paley, and the authors of the early Victorian Bridgewater treatises had contended that the observation of nature could lead to the belief in a God that had created a beneficent order. As well as establishing a theological framework supplementing the revealed religion of scripture, British natural theology explicitly upheld a conservative...

Preface

The nineteenth century was one of the most diverse and creative periods in the history of Christian theology. Its problems, challenges, and developments continue to be assimilated by theologians today, while its great thinkers - G. W. F. Hegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Soren Kierkegaard, John Henry Newman, et al. - are the subject of intensive international scholarship. The theologies of the nineteenth century can be viewed variously as reactive, creative, and innovative. The Enlightenment of...

The emergence of Neo Spinozism

Apparently not having learned his lesson from trying but failing to find an ally in Lessing, Jacobi sent a copy of his account of the conversation to his friend and fellow critic of pure reason, Herder. In Herder's response, God Some Conversations (1787), we find the turning point in the reception of Spinoza in Germany. For Herder (and, later, for the early Romantics), Spinoza represented an alternative to atheism and theism. First, however, Spinoza's philosophy had to be brought up to date....

Practical Philosophy

In the Groundwork, the Critique of Practical Reason, Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, and the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant poses a series of moral questions. As well as the antique question How should I act Kant asks, How do I morally justify my acts As well as the question Am I free Kant asks, How do I justify my assumption that I am free Once again, questions of public justification come to the fore. It is important to note that Kant did not have a differentiated notion of the...

The Dissemination of Romanticism

In 1798, the same year they published the first edition of the Lyrical Ballads, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge traveled to Germany for a year. Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy, stayed in Goslar Coleridge settled eventually in the university town of Gottingen, where he immersed himself in German philosophy and criticism, especially the writings of Kant, Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), A. W. Schlegel, and F. W. J. Schelling (1775-1854). By most accounts, it was Coleridge who...

Theology in the academy and the input of philosophical anthropology 18801900

The question of what it means to speak of the divine humanity of Christ, and the related question of the love of God as the foundation of theology, also preoccupied the Russian academic tradition. From 1850 to 1880, these two questions were still a marginal consideration, being developed only by such controversial theologians as Aleksandr Bukharev, also known as Archimandrite Theodore but later defrocked. Bukharev was one of the few academic teachers who approached secular religious literature...

Romanticism Spinozism and Pantheism

Pantheism is a third way. (Novalis)59 Because you can see no third alternative, and because you will not deify nature, you deify human consciousness. (Schleiermacher to Jacobi)60 The Romantics were not Spinozists in the sense that they carried out Spinoza's philosophy in its details. The content of Spinoza's thought inspired and guided them in four, very general, ways. His idea of God as immanent cause provided them with a new way of understanding the relation between God (the infinite) and the...

Theology and Science as Incommensurate Domains

The supposition that theology and science are wholly independent spheres was not especially popular in the nineteenth century. Even biblical literalists and sophisticated conservative theologians such as the American Presbyterian Charles Hodge spoke of their higher unity, though this unity might appear veiled to present observers. There were, however, some theologians who held that while theology and science do not collide with one another, they are, nonetheless, disparate spheres of knowledge...

Theology in the academy The Protosov period

With the death of Alexander I (November 19, 1825), the era of the Russian Biblical Association came to an end with the loss of the Tsar's patronage, the group had to give up the project, and disbanded in the spring of 1826. Even so, there were a number of attempts to continue the task of translation up until at least the mid-1850s for example, by Archimandrite Makarius.6 However, these attempts received little support. Now in the period 1825-1838, some interesting new theological tendencies...

Contributors

Nicholas Adams teaches theology and ethics at the University of Edinburgh. He is the author of Habermas and Theology 2006 and several articles on German Idealism in relation to theology and on the inter-faith practice of scriptural reasoning. His principal focus of research is the relation between tradition and public reasoning. Christine Axt-Piscalar is Professor of Systematic Theology at the GeorgAugust University of G ttingen. Her publications include Der Grund des Glaubens. Eine...

The Pantheism Controversy Pantheismusstreit

Indeed, I can barely comprehend how one can be a poet without admiring Spinoza, loving him, and becoming entirely his. Friedrich Schlegel 3 Respectfully offer up with me a lock of hair to the manes of the holy rejected Spinoza The significance of Spinoza for the early German Romantics is to be found in the story that explains how the dominant view changed from Pierre Bayle's 16471706 description of Spinozists as those who have hardly any religion5 to Novalis' description of Spinozism as a...

Early German Romanticism Fruhromantik

I f you haven't yet understood Spinoza, discover for the present the true religious conception of the universe in the Speeches on Religion. Friedrich Schlegel 20 Early German Romanticism marked something genuinely new - the coalescence of astounding literary talents with strong philosophical impulses, first in Jena and then in Berlin. The veins of historical influences are, of course, detectable, but they are not finally determinative. Those who formed the inner circle of early Romanticism...

Christian Theology The Production of Knowledge about Historical Christianity

We now turn to Schleiermacher's thought in theology that appropriates dialectic and hermeneutics as its method in studying the distinct phenomenon of Protestant Christianity. Schleiermacher was ordained a Reformed pastor, and served as pastor from 1809 to1834 to the large Dreifaltigkeitskirche Church of the Triune God in Berlin, a mixed Lutheran and Reformed congregation. Yet Schleiermacher began to articulate his thoughts on religion in 1799 with the Speeches its lengthier title is, in...

Notes On Liberal Theology

All works are by Soren Kierkegaard either pseudonymously or non- pseudonymously unless otherwise specified. 1 Quoted by Howard A. Johnson in his introduction to Soren Kierkegaard, Attack upon Christendom, trans. Walter Lowrie Princeton, N.J. Princeton University Press, 1968 , xxxiii. 2 A truly Kierkegaardian study of Kierkegaard's work should therefore itself be written in indirect communication and under a pseudonym 3 Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, I 627. 4 See...

The First Authorship Kierkegaards Authorship until 1846

Kierkegaard's first full-length published work was From the Papers of One Still Living 1838 , a critique of Hans Christian Andersen's novel Only a Fiddler, which Kierkegaard attacks for not having a life-view. This concern for a life-view, to find a truth worth living or dying for, as he puts it in an early journal entry,15 is a theme that runs through Kierkegaard's authorship. Kierkegaard's next significant work was his doctrinal dissertation The Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to...

Philosophical Theology

Hegel's theology was formulated in conscious opposition to the deism of earlier Enlightenment thinkers, to Kant's reduction of religion to an aid to moral performance, and to Schleiermacher's perceived grounding of religion in subjective feeling. Moreover, it eschewed a return to the rationalist tradition which stressed the transcendence of the impassible God over against the finite, contingent creation. The key concept in Hegel's theology is that of spirit Geist . It has several connotations...