Primary Sources

Apollinarius of Laodicea, Opera, in H. Leitzmann, ed., Apollinaris von Laodicea und seine

Schule (Tübingen, 1904) Athanasius. Contra Arianos. Ed. H. G. Opitz, Athanasius Werke (Berlin, 1935-41), 11.1.

'Letter to Epictetus'. Ed. G. Ludwig. Athanasii Epistula ad Epictetum (Jena, 1911) ps.-Athanasius. De incarnatione contra Apollinarium libri II (PG 26: 1093-1165) Cyril of Alexandria. Contra Nestorium

41 Cf. F.-M. Lethel, Theologie de l'agonie du Christ.

42 Cf. Uthemann, 'Neuchalkedonismus', 404-11.

43 Cf. K.-H. Uthemann 'Das anthropologische Modell der hypostatischen Union bei Maximus Confessor'; 'Das anthropologische Modell der hypostatischen Union'. In order to understand this, one has to heed the distinction between what defines a nature (logos) and the modality (tropos), which Maximus derived from the Cappadocians and developed further: modality here means that each nature always exists individually. In Christ modality characterises a renewal of human nature, and is therefore grounded in the fact that the Logos as a hypostasis of the one God is also its hypostasis. With regard to this, see F. Heinzer, Gottes Sohn als Mensch and I. H. Dalmais, 'L'innovation des natures'.

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