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of Rome to review the judgments of his colleagues. The Africans were aware of no such ruling, and it was found in no Greek record; at length it was ascertained that the Nicene canons had been augmented by those of Serdica in the copies held at Rome.27

Opponents of the Donatists could adduce an empirical test of catholicity, for it was they who were in communion with Rome and hence with the Eastern congregations which were not at odds with Rome. In their dealings with the Pelagians, on the other hand, the Africans first determined what was catholic, then challenged the rest of Christendom to concur. In 415 the Council of Diospolis in Palestine declared Pelagius innocent. Augustine, the mouthpiece of Africa, excused the Greeks on the plea that they were ignorant of his most pernicious writings; but when Zosimus (himself a Greek) repeated the acquittal in Rome, the Africans were incensed. No match for Augustine in theology, he was forced to concede, and on 1 May 418 Pelagius and Caelestius were condemned at a council in Carthage for having taught that humankind was created mortal, and that the first man's sin ruined no one but himself.28 The exclusion of the Donatists may have prejudiced the outcome, for the puritan who undertook to bleach the robe of Christ by his own lustrations would have been the natural patron of the lay heretic who believed that we can escape the toils of Adam by our own zeal. Finally, in 411 the Donatists came to a conference in Carthage at the summons of its Catholic bishop Aurelius.29 For all the candid scrutiny of Constantinian records, the outcome was already assured by numbers, for when the roll was taken a number of Catholics were able to declare, 'I have no rival.' The Donatists ignored the ecumenical endorsement of the conference, and within the Catholic fold new ruptures prompted decrees from Carthaginian synods against the contumacy of excommunicated clergy and the introduction of strange prayers at the altar. Schism was eliminated only when Christianity was smothered in Northern Africa by the triumph of Islam.

A long succession of Spanish councils opens with the attainder of Priscil-lian in 380 at Saragossa.30 The colourful (and perhaps misjudged) heresiarch escaped immediate punishment, but was denounced in 381 to the Western

27 See Concilia Africae (CCSL 149: 91-4). The code of 419 ratified the canon of scripture laid down in 397 (ibid., 142), which ignored the distinction made elsewhere between the Hebrew and the Greek books of the Old Testament.

28 Concilia Africae (CCSL 149: 74-7).

29 The Gesta Conlationis Carthaginis contains the proceedings and Augustine's Brevis collatio.

30 See PL 84: 315-18 and H. Chadwick, Priscillian of Avila, 12-15. On the first Council of Toledo (400), see ibid. 171-219, and on the putative second council of Saragossa in 395, ibid., 27-30.

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