aristocracy of northern Gaul fled to Arles. And when, in 416-18, the emperor established the council of the seven Gallic provinces (which became the political basis for the provincial aristocracy), the council assembled at Arles.103

The bishop of Arles's chief rival at the close of the fourth century was the bishop ofVienne. In 398 the synod of Turin attempted a compromise. Primacy concerning the province of Viennensis should belong to the metropolitan bishop; if the sees of Vienne and Arles continued quarrelling, the problem should be resolved by basically partitioning the province.104 But this ruling did not settle things: Patroclus of Arles appealed to Pope Zosimus (417/18) to establish the primacy of his see. Zosimus declared that no Gallic clergy should travel to Rome without obtaining an official letter of recommendation (epis-tulaformata) from the bishop of Arles. Moreover, Zosimus informed the Gallic churches that the metropolitan bishop of Arles had the authority to ordain bishops in the provinces of Viennensis and Narbonnensis I and II (including Alpes Maritimae), effectively establishing Arles as a Roman vicariate in southern Gaul.105 The pope's promotion of Arles had limited success: one bishop, Hilarius ofNarbonne, capitulated, but others, like Simplicius ofVienne and Proculus of Marseille, ignored the decision.

Zosimus' successors, Boniface I and Leo I, failed to confirm Arles's primacy. Pope Leo I (sed. 440-61) clashed with Hilary of Arles (sed. 430-49) over these issues. Hilary owed his elevation to the bishopric to the political and military elite. He continued the work of the synod of Turin by formulating conciliar legislation that provided the Gallic churches with structure and discipline conforming to the fathers' statutes. In 439, 441 and 442 he assembled synods ofbishops (mainly from the Viennensis, Narbonnensis II and Alpes Maritimae) that confirmed Arles' supra-metropolitan authority, particularly in the matter of ordainingbishops. Apparently enlisting the support ofthe prefect, Hilary travelled far and wide in southern Gaul, hastily ordaining bishops.106 He employed military force to enter cities whose churches resisted him.107 His fellow bishops in southern Gaul seem to have welcomed his zeal for church discipline, but when he proceeded against the bishop of Besancon, Chelidonius, he met with stiff resistance. When Hilary deposed him, Chelidonius appealed to Rome and was rehabilitated by Pope Leo in 445. Leo censured Hilary for his high-handedness and denied both his metropolitan and supra-metropolitan

103 F. Prinz, FrUhes Monchtum, 48f.; P. Heather, 'Senators and senates', 202-3.

104 Concilium Taurinense A.398 c.2 (CCSL 148: 55-6).

105 Zosimus, Letter 1 (PL 20: 642-5) with Langgartner, Gallienpolitik, 26-52.

106 Leo, Letter 10.6 (PL 54: 633-4). See R. W Mathisen, 'Hilarius, Germanus, and Lupus'.

107 Leo, Letter 10.6 (PL 54: 633-4). See M. Heinzelmann, Bischofsherrschaft, 77-84.

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