accepted baptism.83 Hypatius summed up all his activities tersely, remarking, 'Christianity is not a chance thing,' and 'The battle is not against flesh and blood, but against evil daemons.'84

Aphrodisias, the 'city of Aphrodite' and provincial capital of Caria, was the place of a century-long ideological conflict between pagans and Christians. Its city councillors remained devoutly pagan until early in the reign of Justinian the Great. The provincial governors alluded to pagan priestly titles in their inscriptions and seldom, if ever, used a cross. The first identifiably Christian governor took up residence in Aphrodisias only c. 450.85 The grandson of Tatian, one of the last pagan praetorian prefects of Oriens (388-92), honoured his famous ancestor by re-installing his statue in the early fifth century.86 The archbishops and civil authorities in Constantinople were suspicious of this, but could do little about it apart from spitefully renaming the city Stauropolis ('City of the cross') in official communiques and ecclesiastical documents.87 It is thought that the city councillors sympathised or co-operated in the rebellion of Leontius and Illus against the emperor Zeno in 484.88 This may have been the occasion of converting the temple of Aphrodite into a church, the archaeological and architectural data suggesting a date after 450.89 The building was marked with crosses to signify the new state of affairs, and much of the pagan statuary was defaced, with the noses ofthe gods and priests being cleanly chiselled off.90 The Christian victory was a matter of political fact by the early sixth century. An acclamation inscription from the reign of the emperor Anastasius asserts: 'The faith of the Christians conquers!'91

The last phase of Christianising the empire began in the reign of Justinian the Great, whose law of 529 required every citizen of the empire to accept baptism.92 The codification of 534 repeated the ban on sacrifice found in previous legislation.93 Persons living on the fringes of the catechumenate

88 Trombley Hellenic religion and Christianization, 11: 20-9, 60f.

89 Cormack, 'The temple as cathedral'; for a list of temple conversions in Anatolia, see Bayliss, Provincial Cilicia, 124-9.

90 Personal observation, 21 September 2004; for the statuary see K. T. Erim, 'Portrait sculpture at Aphrodisias'; K. T. Erim and R. R. R. Smith, 'Sculpture from the theatre: A preliminary report'; R. R. R. Smith, 'Late Roman philosophers'; R. R. R. Smith, 'Archaeological research at Aphrodisias 1989-1992'.

91 Roueché, Aphrodisias,no. 61.

92 Thelawin question was CJ 1.11.9 and 1.11.10; Honoré, Tribonian, 46f.; cf. Coleman-Norton, Roman state & Christian church, 1048-50.

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