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the West by references to the double procession of the Spirit from Father and Son.18

After the Macedonian controversy, the clear confession of the full divinity of the Holy Spirit became another significant ingredient in the formation of a pro-Nicene consensus that was now spreading in both East and West. But the polarisation between East and West continued on the political front. Constan-tius, who had lent forceful support to the Homoian position, died in 360. He was succeeded briefly by his cousin Julian, who had renounced Christianity and sought to purify the empire from Christian influences, and by Jovian, who showed signs of favouring pro-Nicenes during his brief reign. In 364, imperial authority was again divided, now between Valens in the East (regn. 364-78) and Valentinian in the West (regn. 364-75). Valens was an active promoter of the Homoian cause, while Valentinian followed a non-interventionist policy that was nevertheless sympathetic to the Nicene position. Upon his death in 375, Valentinian was succeeded by his son Gratian, who adopted a policy of general tolerance. The more fateful succession followed upon the death of Valens, who died at the hands of the Goths in the battle of Adrianople in 378. He was succeeded in 379 by Theodosius, who quickly showed himself to be a strong supporter of the emerging pro-Nicene consensus. He issued an edict in 380 (Cunctos populos) that announced the single divinity of Father, Son and Spirit to be the official doctrine of the empire, and another in January 381 (Nullius haereticis) that expressly forbade anti-Nicene factions from congregating in churches. The stage was thus set for a pro-Nicene council, which was called to meet in Constantinople, in 38i.

The Council of Constantinople was attended by approximately 150 Eastern bishops. The large majority of these were already sympathetic to pro-Nicene theology, with the exception of about thirty 'Macedonian' bishops. Negotiations with the Macedonian party were attempted but proved to be unfruitful and they walked out of the council proceedings. The first canon of the Constantinopolitan council re-confirmed the Council of Nicaea and anathematised all those who rejected the full and equal divinity of either Son or Spirit, making reference to 'Eunomians' and Arians', as well as 'Semi-Arians', i.e., those who accepted the full divinity of the Son but did not accord the same status to the Spirit. It equally rejected the modalist doctrine of Marcellus and his Western disciple, Photinus, as well as the teaching of Apollinarius, which asserted that the incarnate Word did not assume a fully human soul. At the Council of Chalcedon of 451, the archdeacon of that city read out a

18 Cf.Epiphanius, Panarion, 62.4.1; Ambrose, De Spir. 1.11.120.

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