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which an aedicule was probably constructed, whereas walls were built around bishops' graves. Monumentalisation was carried out on a more modest scale here. Just north of Domnio's burial place, an inscription was found containing the names of the five companions (Antiochianus, Gaianus, Telius, Paulinianus, Asterius) who suffered martyrdom with Domnio. Bishop Primus was likewise interred under the open sky, approximately 3 m west of Domnio's tomb, probably in 304, making his the first known ad sanctos burial (or burial 'near the saints'). Primus appears to have chosen a burial place on the basis of family ties, so as to be close to his uncle Domnio. Some years later, private circular mausoleums in the form of funeral apses, as well as a trapezoidal burial area, were erected, which indicates that wealthy members of the congregation gradually bought up the burial ground so that they could be buried near the saints. The consolation of being buried near the saints was reserved for the rich upper classes.

In 435, a 47.5 x 20.4m church was finally built over the cemetery but was likewise reserved for the last remains of the rich and powerful - although construction of the church did have the virtue of allowing the whole congregation to attend masses in the saints' honour. The transept containing the martyrs' and bishops' tombs was walled off from the nave by low marble walls, with the result that the transverse area in front ofthe apse was visible but not accessible from the nave.

Why did the church wait more than a century before constructing a church adjacent to or over these martyrs' tombs? Did the church have to wait before it could buy up the former pagan property to build on it? That the church lacked the financial resources for this is hard to believe. In any case, the prospect of being interred near the martyrs in a public cemetery must have appealed to members of the upper class.

A pinnacle of luxury and privilege (omnibus impensis, in the words of the consecration inscription) was achieved by Constantine's daughter Constantina (d. 354 in Bithynia). Probably between 338 and 350, she had a monumental mausoleum and church (S. Costanza) built adjacent to the tomb of St Agnes on Via Nomentana in Rome. The mausoleum - which is similar to the one in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem in that it has a central-plan room with pilasters and a circular ambulatory - was fitted out with every decorative luxury that early Christendom could muster: innovative prestige architecture, uniform re-used columns and capitals, as well as marble covering for the vertical walls; mosaics in the domical vault, in the transverse apses, on the ceiling of the exedra above the sarcophagus, and in the cupola; and a porphyry sarcophagus

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