the capital in 531. The conference ended much as it had begun, and he resolved henceforth to be his own theologian. In 533 he endorsed, and persuaded Rome to approve, the theopaschite dictum 'One of the Trinity has suffered'; but, having gone so far with the Miaphysites, he allowed his own protege Menas, patriarch of Constantinople, to denounce their leaders as heretics.62 In 543, having been convinced that nothing less than an ecumenical council would unite the church, he nonetheless sought to guide its deliberations in advance by addressing to Menas a condemnation of three notorious Dyophysites, all long dead. Theodore of Mopsuestia - mentor if not tutor to Nestorius - had never been the defendant at a council; Ibas and Theodoret had been rehabilitated at Chalcedon only because their depositions were illegal, not because their works were sound. Justinian demanded that the works of all three should suffer public censure, together with those of Origen, whose ill fame had been purposely aggravated by Theophilus in his assault on Chrysostom.63 In 553, the Second Council of Constantinople pronounced a posthumous anathema on all four men, appending a denunciation of fifteen propositions, which were not attached to any name but coincided largely with the eleven ascribed to Origen by Justinian in his letter of 543.

Vigilius of Rome had made it clear before the council that he would not acquiesce in a libel on the dead. Captivity in Byzantium had failed to break his spirit, but when the council threatened to add his name to the condemnation, he subscribed to its resolutions.64 The Fifth Ecumenical Council - as it was to be called - had not attempted to pacify the Nestorians, and did not prevent the installation in 576 of a new Miaphysite patriarch in Egypt by a 'Sanhedrin' of seventy bishops.65 Its sentence on Origen was, however, upheld in 592 by a synod at Antioch: in his judgment, the patriarch Ephrem alludes to earlier conferences at Antioch and Gaza, which appear to have inspired Justinian's letter of 543.66 Yet no more than any other see would Antioch consent to be taught by fiat, and in 565 it led the protest of the Eastern church against Justinian's espousal of the 'aphthartodocetic' heresy, which held that the flesh assumed by Christ was not like that of ordinary men (Evagrius, Church history 4.39-40).

62 See Frend, Monophysite movement, 267-75.

63 On Origen, see Evagrius, Church history 4.38, with Whitby's notes (The Ecclesiastical history of Evagrius Scholasticus, 242-9). On the 'Three Chapters', see Grillmeier, Christ in Christian tradition, 11.2: 419-29. For Justinian's letter, see Schwartz, ACO 3,189-91.

64 Hefele, Histoire des conciles, 111.1:1-40 and 133-50.

65 Frend, Monophysite movement, 327, citingJohn of Ephesus, Church history 4.12.

66 Hefele, Histoire des conciles, 11.2:1174-81, citing Cyril's Life ofSabas 85.

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