which, basing salvation on the immutable obedience of the Logos to the will of the Father, implies the denial of Christ's soul.7

The express denial of a rational soul in Christ, however, is clearly encountered only in Arians of the second generation. They deny the Nicene confession ofthe Logos becoming a humanbeing, and speak only of his incarnation. They argue that the human soul in the one Christ introduces a second intelligence beside that of the Logos and therefore destroys the unity of Christ's 'one composite nature'. However, it seems that this conception of a 'soulless Christ' had already been maintained by the first generation of Arians: Eustathius of Antioch contested it shortly after the Council ofNicaea. First, he distinguishes two natures, the God Logos and the 'human being of Christ', in order to ward offpsilanthropism (i.e., the idea that Christ is a mere man). Second, he stresses the rational soul of this human being. A 'soulless Christ' cannot be the 'cause of salvation' (Hebrews 5.8-9).®

Apollinarius' Christology encompasses all those questions and concepts that would be at issue during the debates between conflicting Alexandrian and Antiochene Christologies at the Council of Ephesus (431). Everything that comes after him in the East in effect debates with him and the tradition of Christological questions he inherited. Therefore he deserves detailed study. His denial of Christ having a human understanding, and thus a human soul, encountered resistance in East and West alike and was condemned as heresy. Yet after the death of Athanasius (373), Apollinarius' perspective of the Christological union (i.e., that the Logos is the one and only subject of all Christological statements - a concept that is itself initially derived from Athanasius) became decisive for Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444) and his asymmetrical picture of Christ. Cyril was particularly influenced by Apollinarian forgeries, i.e., writings of Apollinarius and his disciples that were promulgated under the names of Athanasius of Alexandria, Pope Felix (d. 273/4) and Pope Julius (337-52).

Apollinarius confesses the incarnate One 'as one sole God, one sole hypostasis and one sole person', as 'the one incarnate nature of the God Logos'. Thus he creates precisely that formula that Cyril of Alexandria would later favour.

7 R. C. Gregg and D. E. Groh, Early Arianism; but note that the authors' thesis that sote-riology not radical monotheism, was Arius' principal concern has been rejected by subsequent research.

8 The textual basis for the Christology of Eustathius has been considerably expanded by the edition of previously unknown excerpts of that treatise from which Theodoret of Cyrus took the only quotation that claims that the Arians would deny the human soul of Christ. Cf.J. H. Declerckin his edition ofEustathius, CCSG 51: 63-126; K.-H. Uthemann, Review of Declerck; K.-H. Uthemann, 'Eustathios von Antiochien'.

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