Christology that the Councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451) rejected in condemning Nestorius.63
Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia (392-428), was a student of Libanius, the famous pagan rhetor at Antioch. Syriac translations of Theodore's commentaries on the Nicene Creed, the Lord's Prayer, baptism and the eucharist demonstrate his support of the Nicene faith described at Constantinople in 381. He attacked Arians and Apollinarians for many of the same reasons as Diodore did and thus fell under suspicion from Cyril of Alexandria as a precursor of Nestorius. He also spoke about the actions of the divine Son and those of the 'assumed man' and insisted on grace as the category through which to understand the incarnation, rather than the body/soul analogy employed particularly by Cyril and the Miaphysites. That allowed him to read many Gospel passages more literally, yet it made his understanding of the unity of Jesus Christ's person seem insubstantial. His many scriptural commentaries, now often extant only in Syriac or Latin fragments, have been used continuously by East Syrian ('Nestorian') churches that also follow his Christology.64 His writings were declared heretical at Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451), but not his person.
The last famous Greek-speaker among the Antiochenes was Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus (sed. c. 428-66). From family money he built bridges and public buildings there and fought both paganism and Arianism in his diocese. His histories of the church and of monastic leaders have offered significant understandings of both arenas. At Ephesus (431), he was a major representative of the Dyophysite position and experienced considerable difficulty there. He worked for the reconciliation between John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria in 433 by collaborating with John to draft the document eventually agreed upon. His Eranistes of 447 was primarily an attack on Cyril's Christology and led to his being kept in 'diocese arrest' as an obdurate trouble-maker.65 The Robber Synod deposed and exiled him in 449, but the new emperor, Marcian, reinstated him in 450. After Chalcedon (451), where he was quite active, he wrote his History of heresies, which follows the chain of heretics from the first century up to Chalcedon in five books. After declaring both Eutyches and Nestorius heretics in the fourth book, he went on in the fifth bookto proclaim the teachings of the true church. But Theodoret's status was still contested by
63 R. Abramowski, 'Der theologische Nachlass'; L. Abramowski, 'Streit um Diodor'; Diodore of Tarsus, trans. Hill.
64 R. Norris, Manhood and Christ; D. A. Zaharopoulos, Theodore of Mopsuestia on the Bible; McLeod, The roles of Christ's humanity in salvation. His work on the Minor Prophets exists in Greek.
65 I. P. Kupan, Theodoret of Cyrus.
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