the fulfilment of his own baptism, and to stipulate that Christ's baptism was a Christian baptism. Theodore of Mopsuestia argued that, as Christ was sinless, he was not baptised into John's baptism (which was 'for remission of sins' - Mark 1.4); instead, he was baptised into 'our baptism, and presented an anticipation of it' by being baptised 'with the Holy Spirit and fire' (see John 1.26/Matthew 3.11).79 Shortly thereafter, in Spain, an anonymous homily on Epiphany combined elements from (pseudo-)Ambrose's Hymn 7 with the Christological principles of the Councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451) into a remarkable statement of how Christ's own baptism sanctified the waters so that, through them, the world might be saved.80 Philoxenus of Mabbug also described how Christ's baptism relates to Christian baptism generally. Like Theodore of Mopsuestia, his near-contemporary, Philoxenus maintains that Christ was baptised with 'our baptism' (despite the fact that he had no need of baptism).81 In fact, Philoxenus connects 'our baptism' and Christ's baptism so closely that he can be taken as suggesting that it is Christ's baptism itself that makes his sacrificial death available to Christians through the sacrament of their baptism.82

It is interesting that Philoxenus regularly specifies in creedal statements that Jesus was baptised in the Jordan. In making this claim, he is followed by Armenian sources.83 Among the Greek and Latin authors, Eusebius seems to show a similar concern for where Christ was baptised, when he notes that Constantine was moved to be baptised in the Jordan.84 Chiefly on the basis of his testimony, it has become something of a commonplace to state that pilgrims made their way to Palestine not least for baptism. Could it be that the motivation to anchor Christian baptism in Christ's baptism may have inspired Christians to seek baptism in the river Jordan?

79 Thus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Baptismal homily 3.23-5 (quoting 3.23).

80 The homily is preserved in the Liber ordinum, and its conclusion is typical of the tone and sophistication of the whole (ed. Ferotin, 526): 'Sed neque hic dies lucifluo tantum fulgore sideris Magorum uultibus claruit; sed etiam multis Christi signorum uirtutibus coruscauit. Hoc die namque Christus, fluenta Iordanis ingrediens, fluminis undas corporis sui tinctione sacrauit: non ut ip[s]e [per] lauacrum carnis purificationem indigeret, sed potius ut sanctificaret diuino spiramine aquas, in quibus pollutum uitiis mundum babtismate sacro ablueret.'

81 Philoxenus, Commentary on John's Prologue (CSCO 381: 158-9).

82 Philoxenus' On Matthew, frag. 13 (CSCO 392: 19; trans. 393: 16-17): 'He was baptised (of) our baptism, because he was going to give it to us, because it is a type of his death and of his resurrection. And just as he died and rose and became for us the first-fruits from the dead [cf.i Corinthians 15.20], so he was baptised sacredly for our baptism, and immediately he gave it to us.' See further A. Grillmeier, 'Die Taufe Christi und die Taufe der Christen'.

83 See Grillmeier, 'Die Taufe Christi und die Taufe der Christen', 140-1 n. 7.

84 For Eusebius' account of Constantine's baptism, see n. 68, above.

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