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all throughout Italy and beyond, and they could be passed down from one generation to the next.9

The senatorial aristocrats of Rome who were deeply attached to their polytheistic traditions had the material as well as social resources to maintain their religious activities in the face of growing pressures from Christian emperors and bishops to convert. The senate's distance from the court (now in Milan) favoured autonomy, and the senate at Rome prided itself on its independence from imperial influence. Indeed, if Rome was no longer the capital of the empire, it was still a great cultural and economic urban centre, whose senate was now increasingly in control of its own economic and political needs. Fourth-century emperors tended to accept the autonomy of Rome's senate because, among other things, the emperors relied on the senatorial aristocracy to maintain control over the urban plebs. Moreover, since the senatorial aristocracy had little real access to the military, they were not seen as potential usurpers of imperial power.

These social and institutional factors help to explain why Rome through the first half of the fourth century appears to have enjoyed a relatively peaceful period of accommodation between pagan elites and Christianising emperors and bishops, even as Christianity was gradually being assimilated into Roman society. One of the most eloquent indicators of these trends is the fourth-century Codex-Calendar of 354, a deluxe calendar compiled for use in the city of Rome; like its accommodating urban environment, the Codex-Calendar of 354 incorporated illustrations of pagan holidays and astrological signs along with lists ofthe depositions of saints and martyrs which were included in a book produced for a member of Rome's Christian elite.10 Similarly, the inclusion of pagan imagery in Christian burial contexts, as at S. Costanza or in the Via Latina catacomb, indicates the fluidity of ideas and the reality of co-habitation within Roman upper-class society.

The social and political pressure on the Roman senatorial elite to convert to Christianity intensified in the second half of the fourth century. Christian emperors, beginning with Constantine, showed their support for Christianity through their building projects, laws and pronouncements even as they denigrated pagan cult. The intensity of these Christianising efforts varied over the course ofthe fourth century, depending on the individual emperor's inclination

9 So, for example, at the end ofthe fourth century, Nicomachus Flavianus the Younger was hailed aspatronus originalis ofNaples, a title that gave him honorary citizenship andhence made him a leading patron in that city's social and religious life, a distinction that he had most likely inherited: see D. 8985 and Jens-Uwe Krause, Spatantike Patronatsformen, 27S.

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