(431) and Chalcedon (451) had not. It would have been unseemly to declare the dead to be heretic. In his view, both Theodoret and Ibas had been cleared at Chalcedon. The conciliar fathers thought otherwise, however, and they anathematised Theodore of Mopsuestia, both his person and his works, and condemned certain writings by Theodoret and Ibas of Edessa. Pope Vigilius naturally objected, but Justinian sent him into exile and continued to workfor reconciliation on his own terms.

After Constantinople II

In terms of restoring Christian unity, Justinian's council was unsuccessful. Vigilius' sanguine call for all to rally to Chalcedon notwithstanding, there seemed little realistic prospect for reconciliation through a unified doctrinal statement. Even unity in diversity became problematic, in large measure due to the way that the council dealt with the person and writings of Origen (c. 185-c. 254). A Greek-speaking Egyptian, Origen is the only person who could rival Augustine as the early church's deepest and most wide-ranging theologian. He died as a result of wounds suffered during the Decian persecution, but since he suffered wounds and only subsequently died he was considered a 'confessor' rather than a 'martyr'. Perhaps his reputation would have fared better had he died in custody. In 553, Origen (among others) was condemned by name in the eleventh anathema of Constantinople II. That condemnation calls for comment. We have no certain evidence that he and his views were discussed. But it would not be surprising if his teachings had been a topic of concern, because his robust Christological comments could support parts of either Cyril's or Nestorius' doctrine. On the other hand, it could be that the inclusion of his name among those anathematised is a later interpolation, as are the fifteen anathemas against Origenism.103 Because the name and at least select propositions drawn from the works of the greatest Greek theologian of antiquity were compromised at Constantinople II, subsequent Byzantine Christians were obliged to deal carefully with Origen. Their diminished recourse to Origen may well have hindered Greek theologians in circumstances where the breadth of theological resources available from his works could have been extremely useful.

103 Decrees of the ecumenical councils, ed. and trans. Tanner, 1: 105-6, does not include those fifteen anathemas; V Grummel, Les regestes des actes du patriarcat de Constantinople, 1: 245; F. Diekamp, Die origenistische Streitigkeiten, 90; F. W Murphy and P. Sherwood, Constantinople 11 et Constantinople III, 108-9.

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