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the Spirit were integral to the divine nature, it would have to be another Son, as a brother of the Son, or even a son of the Son, and thus grandson of the Father.

The 'Macedonians' were named after Macedonius, the bishop of Constantinople, though his connection with this doctrine is tenuous, the most prominent exponent of this view being rather Eustathius of Sebaste. The Macedonians also believed in the full divinity of the Son, under the rubric of 'likeness of essence', but withheld both worship and confession of divinity from the Spirit, on the bases of scriptural and logical arguments that were largely similar to those of the 'Tropici'.

The development ofthese subordinationist views ofthe Spirit was countered chiefly by Athanasius and Basil of Caesarea. Athanasius dismisses the exegetical arguments of those who deny the divinity of the Holy Spirit as specious: the reference to the created spirit in Amos pertains not to the divine Spirit, but to the spirit of creatures. Since the scriptures attribute to the Spirit the creative and sanctifying work of God, the Spirit must be God. Moreover, this work is brought to consummation in the individual Christian through the sacramental event of baptism, of which the Spirit is an agent. If the Spirit were not God, baptism could not be an initiation into divine life. Athanasius analyses the patterns of scriptural language to come to the conclusion that 'the Spirit has the same relation of nature and order with respect to the Son as the Son has with respect to the Father'.16 As to the precise distinction between the Son's generation, and the relation by which the Spirit is derived from the Father, he maintains an apophatic silence.

In his treatise On the Holy Spirit, Basil follows Athanasius' line of reasoning, that the scriptural account of the names and activities of the Spirit indicate his divinity, and also dwells on the Spirit's agency in Christian baptism. He deals with Aetius' argument that the differences in liturgical prepositions ('from the Father, through the Son, in the Spirit') are indicative of differences of essence by showing that each of these prepositions is variously applied in the scriptures to all three. Ultimately, however, Basil refrains from directly calling the Spirit 'God' or homoousios, choosing to make the point in the more experiential language of worship: the Spirit is of 'equal honour (isotémos)' to the Father and the Son.17 Many of the arguments of Athanasius and Basil are reproduced in the writings of Western defenders of Nicene doctrine, though already the Greek apophaticism regarding the procession of the Spirit is attenuated in

16 Athanasius, AdSerap. 1.21.

17 Basil, De Spiritu Sancto 6.13.

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