interpretation of Nicaea made Nicene doctrine at least as problematic, in the eyes of many, as the teaching of Arius. Branded as a 'new Sabellius' by the authoritative figure of Eusebius of Caesarea, Marcellus was deposed by a synod in Constantinople in 336. While exiled in Rome, he joined forces with his fellow exile, Athanasius, in a polemical campaign against those whom they called 'Arians'.

Athanasius had been present at the Council of Nicaea as a young deacon accompanying his bishop, Alexander. He succeeded Alexander as bishop of Alexandria, in 328, embarking on a forty-six-year reign over the Church of Egypt, punctuated by seventeen years of exile. But we do not have any sustained public refutation of 'Arianism' from Athanasius until the early 340s, some fifteen years after the Council of Nicaea, when he penned his Orations against the Arians. Though Athanasius adopted Marcellus' polemical strategy of identifying all subordinationist theologies as Arian' and approved of the terminology of ' one hypostasis' to refer to the relation of Father and Word, his understanding of this relation is markedly different. A central, though generally overlooked, indication of this difference is manifest in Athanasius' treatment of the scriptural titles (epinoiai) of the Son in his Orations against the Arians. While Marcellus accepts only Logos as applicable to the pre-existence of Christ, Athanasius makes much of a whole series of other scriptural titles -such as Son, Image, Wisdom and Radiance - in order to designate the eternal correlativity of Father and Son.8 Differentiation within the Godhead is thus an essential feature of Athanasius' doctrine of God in a way that is precluded in the doctrine of Marcellus.

Together, Marcellus and Athanasius were at the centre of East/West tensions in the 340s. These differences are well illustrated by two councils from this period: the Council of Antioch (341) and the Council of Serdica (343). The former followed upon failed negotiations between Pope Julius and the Eastern bishops to convoke a synod in Rome. Meeting separately, the bishops of Antioch indignantly disavowed being followers of Arius. But their main theological opponent was Marcellus, whose doctrine they countered by insisting that Father, Son and Spirit are three hypostases. They shunned the language of unity of substance, employing the biblical terminology of' image' to designate the relation between Father and Son (cf. Colossians 1.15). The unity of the Trinity was expressed in moral, rather than ontological, terms:' one in concord'. The Council of Serdica, convoked by the Western emperor Constans, was also originally intended to bring together East and West. But the Western insistence

8 See K. Anatolios, '"When was God without Wisdom?"'.

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