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confined to church buildings, but was 'stational' - moving from one place to another, and in a sense, sacralising the whole city and its environs.

Egeria's account is an exceptional document, coming as it does from a woman religious on pilgrimage. On the whole, however, the surviving evidence comes from clergy, in catechetical homilies and a few collections of prayers, and thus is written from the point of view of the ordained. Furthermore, our sources are not extensive.

An attempt to conserve links with earlier worship patterns can be seen in two pseudonymous church orders - the so-called Apostolic tradition and the Apostolic constitutions.

Until recently, liturgical scholars accepted the contention of E. Schwartz and R. H. Connolly that, from a variety of Egyptian and Syrian church orders, it was possible to re-constitute a work called Apostolic tradition, alluded to on the plinth of a headless statue discovered during 1551 in Rome. The plinth contained names of some books that antiquity had attributed to Hippolytus, a rival Roman bishop during the early third century. This liturgical material was dated c. 215, and came to be regarded as typical of the church in Rome and elsewhere at that time. More recent studies show that this was a composite document, having layers ofmaterial from different periods (andpossibly places) which were brought together by a dissident group in Rome, during either the late third century or, more probably, the early fourth century.3 This community looked back to house churches when each had its own presbyter-bishop. Its liturgical material probably represents an idealised view of worship that they imagined had been used in the early third century by their presbyter-bishop, Hippolytus. Though parts of the text may well represent third-century usages ofthat particular community, it has been overlaid, updated, and then projected back in time. At least one reason for its composition was that it attempted to conserve, even if in idealised form, worship of an earlier era. According to this church order, the church had special prayers for the ordination of bishops, presbyters and deacons; forms for appointment of other ministries, such as readers and subdeacons; a ritual of baptism with prayers, and one for the eucharist; it also assumes times each day for communal or individual prayer.

The Apostolic constitutions, consisting of eight books, is dated c. 360-80, and was arranged in the vicinity of Antioch. The compiler seems to have had Eunomian or Eusebian Christological convictions that Jesus was subordinate to God the Father, and claimed that the work was by Clement of Rome in the

3 Paul F. Bradshaw et al., The apostolic tradition.

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