transcendental Logos and the assumed human being. For 'properties of the flesh', such as birth, suffering and dying, are to be excluded in a natural or an ontological sense from an appropriation carried out by the Logos. A natural or ontological appropriation would be a pagan notion, proposed by heretics like Apollinarius and Arius. Nestorius can accept Cyril's concept insofar as the latter says that the Godhead indwells in Christ and the assumed human being is its temple and as such the property of God. Later, in a letter to Alexander of Mabbug, Nestorius defines more precisely which concept of appropriation seems correct to him. This letter reflects the discussion of Cyril's concept of appropriation, which began in Antioch after 431, and of Athanasius' letter to Epictetus.

Cyril's fourth anathema Cyril's third letter (the 'ultimatum') with the attached twelve anathemas arrived in Constantinople on 30 November 430. It offered nothing new and took no account of Nestorius' reply to the second letter. It is striking that Cyril here calls 'union according to the hypostasis' also 'union according to the nature', or 'natural union'. That for him the concepts 'nature' and 'hypostasis' are interchangeable is shown with complete clarity by the third anathema. For here he does not - as one would expect - charge Nestorius with 'the separation of the natures', but rather with the separation 'of the hypostases'.

Decisive for the history of the confrontation of Alexandria and Antioch is Cyril's fourth anathema. As in the polemical writing Contra Nestorium, Nesto-rius is also condemned because he divided the biblical statements about Christ between 'two prosopa or hypostases'. On Cyril's reading he allows the statements of divinity or sovereignty to apply only to the Logos, while the statements of lowliness refer 'as it were to a human being, who beside the . . . Logos is consideredfor himself. Here Cyril does not mention the third class of biblical statements. He is convinced that all biblical statements are expressed of the Logos as the one subject of the kenosis and for that very reason of the one single prosopon, the one incarnate hypostasis of the God Logos. Hence for him there are as such only two classes, statements of sovereignty and statements of lowliness.

Nestorius' reaction to the ultimatum: A strange formula Nestorius' reaction to Cyril's provocative third letter can be gauged from the sermon he preached on 25 March 431 (CPG 5716). The sermon responds at the same time to a homily of Proclus of Constantinople (CPG 5800). In this homily - a showpiece of ecclesiastical rhetoric - Proclus, who succeeded

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