An even starker subordinationism is found in the theology propounded by Aetius and Eunomius, sometimes referred to as 'Neo-Arianism'. In fact, this theology differed in key ways from the theology of Arius, most notably in replacing Arius' doctrine that the Son does not know the Father with the teaching that the knowledge of God's substance is available to all rational creatures and is manifest in the divine names. Most centrally, for both Aetius and Eunomius, the primary name revelatory of the divine nature is that of 'agennetos , unoriginate and unbegotten. Therefore, the Son, as begotten, is of a different nature than the true God. The unbegotten nature of God precludes any communication of being in either the act of an (intra-divine) generation or an incarnation. Unlike the Homoians, Aetius and especially Eunomius were not shy of applying ousia-language to God in order to declare unflinchingly the incomparable difference in ontological status between Father and Son.

The emergence of radical expressions of anti-Nicene subordinationism in the 350s spawned significant countervailing theological currents. The successor of Marcellus, Basil of Ancyra, still shy of the Nicene homoousios, nevertheless insisted that the relation of the Son to the Father must be articulated as 'like according to essence (homoios kat' ousian)' in order to preclude attributing creaturehood to the Son. This position came to be identified with the slogan of homoiousios ('like in essence'), though that term itself was not used by Basil. Athanasius went farther, emerging in the 350s as a leading promoter of Nicaea. In his On the Council of Nicaea (De decretis), Athanasius defends Nicaea against those who disapproved of its terminology as non-scriptural. He explains that the Nicene bishops were forced to resort to this term in order to safeguard the intent of scriptural language. This intent is manifest in the scriptural titles ofthe Son - such as Word, Wisdom, Radiance - which represent him as correlative to the Father's being. The Nicene homoousios was the only way to rule out interpretations of scriptural language that imputed creaturehood to the Son. Even the terminology of likeness of essence, which in the theology of Basil of Ancyra lacked subordinationist overtones, was inadequate as leaving the way open to a homoian interpretation.10

As the decade wore on, developments in ecclesial politics under the influence of the Eastern emperor Constantius served to undermine the position of 'the Homoiousians' and to further polarise pro-Nicene and anti-Nicene forces. In 359, Constantius convoked a twin council, the Western contingent of which met at Ariminum in Italy and the Eastern at Seleucia, near Antioch. The councils were presented with a creed (known as the 'Dated' creed of 22 May

10 Athanasius, Desynodis 53.

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