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bishops and administration 351-3

and auctoritas and potestas 412-17

British 62

and charity 343, 344, 359-60 and Christian emperor 410-12 and cities as sees 344-50 and Constantine 343 and councils 389, 390, 391, 392 and decline in cities 349-50 duties 344-5 election 578

and elites 28, 35-6, 37, 343-4, 346, 347-9, 35°, 410

and empire 343-4, 357-9 as exemplar for rulers 362-3 Gallic 36-7, 380

hierarchy and rivalries 343, 350-7 and imperial service 346, 410 increase in number 344 Italian 210, 215, 219, 224 as letter-writers 328

metropolitan 23, 67, 350-1, 352, 353, 370, 392 and monasticism 642, 645, 651, 658, 662-3,

664, 665, 676 North African 243-4, 344 and pastoral care 567-73, 578 and patronage 344, 359, 410, 573, 714 and power 110, 238-9, 243-4, 298, 349-50 and property 358-9 and sacred time 361 as saints 35, 551, 553-4 and society 343-63 Spanish 38-9

spirituality and secular society 349, 357-63 translation 84, 370, 372, 374, 392 and warfare 362 blasphemy of Sirmium (357) 12, 372 bnay qyama (ascetics) 656 Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus 18, 451-2 Bogomils 294 Boniface I, Pope (418-22) 32 Boniface II, Pope (530-2) 35 The book of the laws of the countries 123 Bowman, S. 162 Boyarin, Daniel 157 Braga, synods 561 38, 39, 380

572 38, 380

'Breviary of Alaric' 31 Bridget, St. 61 Britain and Anglian Christianity 66-8 and Celtic Christianity 59-63, 578, 582 and monasticism 61-3, 677 Brown, P. 233, 548, 559 Brundage, J.A. 587 Buddhism 119 Buenacasa Perez, C. 236 Burgundian kingdom and Arian Christianity 55, 58 and church and state 10, 34 and Franks 35

and Ostrogoths and Visigoths 33-4 and see of Arles 33, 34

burial close to martyrs' tombs 677, 719-21 with glass bowls 719 liturgy 608

see also catacombs; sarcophagi Byzantine empire and Armenian church 138 and Christians and Jews 152-5 and church and state 118,133, 386 and Georgian church 138-9 and Islam 170 and North Africa 241-4 and papacy 381-3, 697 and Persian church 133,134 Byzantium see Constantinople

Caecilian of Carthage 41-3, 234, 369 Caelestius, and Pelagianism 307, 375, 377,

514 Caesarea and Constantinople 351 and Jerusalem 350-1 Caesarius of Arles 33, 34-5 and Council ofAgde and domestic piety 533, 536 and marriage 589

and monasticism 37, 676, 677, 679-80, 688 and pastoral care 579 and penance 582 Caesaropapism 101, 403, 405, 412 Caillet, J. P. 221 canon law 386-400

in apostolic and conciliar age 387-93 early collections 394-8 in East 386, 393, 396, 587 Greek collections 399-400 and Justinian 101

and marriage and sexuality 587-90 and papal decretals 394-5, 396, 400 and patristic writings 399-400 in West 386, 393, 394-8, 587 Canons of the Apostles 387, 396 Cantenae, and heresy 303 Canterbury, as metropolitan see 67, 68 Cappadocians and Christology 454, 475 and imperial service 346-7 and Origen 80, 303, 324, 627 and theological epistemology 445-6, 450-1 and the Trinity 445-8, 449 see also Basil of Caesarea; Gregory of Nazianzus; Gregory of Nyssa; Macrina the Younger

Carthage

Arab conquest (698) 244 and clergy numbers 352 pre-eminence 40-5 Carthage, Councils 374, 389 220/30 389

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