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he is invisible... although he is the true God... although according to his divine essence he...is immutable.' Apollinarius always drew attention to the incarnate Logos, to God in whom 'the new human being' exists. To this extent his picture of Christ is asymmetrical and open to the charge of employing naive theopaschite language. Here the one subject of all Christological statements is the incarnate Logos. According to Apollinarius, the conception that distinguishes both God and human being in Christ has the effect of abolishing the unity of the one subject, i.e., it divides Christ into two subjects (dihairesis). For him, this therefore implies a 'Christology from below', like Paul of Samosata's.

The difference between the two Christological conceptions was intimated by Apollinarius and disputed by Alexandrian and Antiochene Christologies. It led to the introduction of mutually exclusive Christological confessions that ultimately resulted in mutual misunderstandings and reciprocal claims of heresy. This happened although both traditions, the Alexandrian and the Antiochene, favoured a 'Christology from above', had recourse to Nicaea and laid claim to Nicene orthodoxy They both agreed to defend the one Christ as the one subject, to distance the suffering of Christ from the divinity and to preserve the apatheia of God. As God, Christ the redeemer could not suffer.

The Christological confession of Apollinarius of Laodicea - with, and beyond, Athanasius

Like Marcellus of Ancyra, Apollinarius of Laodicea could also write impressively about the divinity of Christ as saviour, for example in his Anakepheiaiosis. Yet in contrast to Marcellus he stresses the ontological unity of the God-man and confesses that 'it was God who was crucified by the Jews', that on the cross 'God himself died', even if God, as God, cannot suffer. As God the incarnate One is unchangeable; he took on the condition of the kenosis, or self-emptying, by assuming the form of a slave (Philippians 2.7). What was assumed is 'no other beside God', who suffers and is prayed to, but God's flesh, God's body, because 'he is inseparable from that which is his body'. To this extent Christ's body is uncreated and of'one (or the same) substance' (homoousios) with God. This is true even if, in the union, neither the nature of the body nor that of the divinity is changed.

Apollinarius refuses to speak of the human beingJesus. He concedes only a similarity with the human being (!), which the pre-existing one had added in his

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