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is unclear whether this act that he associated with the gift of the Spirit also included a laying on of hands.

Ambrose gives some information about the eucharist, in particular the eucharistic prayer. Requests for kings and other people may allude to the intercessions, the first part of the Romano-Milanese eucharistic prayer, or the canon ofthe mass. It has a petition for consecration, the institution narrative and some post-narrative prayers - all of which have parallels with the Roman canon of the mass. Though our first texts of the latter are seventh century, Ambrose seems to confirm that its substance was well established by the fourth century. The Milanese bishop also witnesses to daily prayer, and indicates that there the usual psalmody (118, 119; 140) was employed at morning and evening.

The letter of Innocent to Decentius was written in March 416 to the bishop of Gubbio (Umbria), and shows a pope seeking to maintain liturgical uniformity in the bishoprics under his authority. It discusses various practices different from those at the town of Gubbio. Innocent I attempts to persuade Decentius to follow the liturgical customs as observed in Rome. From this letter we learn that at Rome there were two post-baptismal anointings, the first administered by the presbyter, but a second by the bishop (who also laid hands on the candidates with prayer). In the eucharist, whereas most churches seemed to exchange the Peace immediately prior to the preparation of the eucharistic elements and the recitation of the eucharistic prayer, at Rome it came immediately before the communion. Innocent also discusses the recitation of the names of offerers at the eucharist. He describes the practice of the fermentum - i.e., the sending of a particle of consecrated bread from the papal mass to the titular churches in Rome, so that the particle could be added to the host. It is not clear whether this was to effect consecration at rites presided over by presbyters or to symbolise the unity of the Roman church. Innocent further mentions fasting on Saturday, penance, and the ministry to the sick.15 As in Jerusalem, so in Rome there were stational liturgies - assembling at one church and processing through the city to the church chosen for the particular Sunday service. Not only does this letter reveal something of the liturgical ceremonies and customs of Rome; it also witnesses to the considerable local differences that persisted.

The Verona sacramentary is a collection of libelli missarum - a variety of formulae for one or more masses - prayers, preface, introduction to the hanc igitur ('Accept therefore this [offering]'). It does not contain the canon of the mass, though it presupposes it, or the readings of chants. Part is missing; we

15 Martin F. Connell, Church and worship in fifth-century Rome.

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