Reparatus of Carthage, Firmus of Tipasa and two bishops from Byzacena to Constantinople. Reparatus was deposed, exiled and replaced by his own apocrisiarius, Primosus. Firmus yielded to the pressure but died on the journey home. Of the two Byzacene bishops one, Primasius, became primate of Byzacena after having condemned the 'Three Chapters'. The controversy continued. Justinian's re-conquest of Africa - aimed at liberating Catholics from the yoke of Homoians - resulted in more persecution. Eventually, however, Justinian's policy succeeded and African Christianity was united in its adherence to the new orthodoxy.49

As for Vigilius, he was permitted to withdraw the Iudicatum in 550 - on the condition that he had to assure the emperor of his loyalty regarding the condemnation of the 'Three Chapters' through a secret written oath.50 The following July, Justinian issued a further edict against the 'Three Chapters' and published it in all the main churches of Constantinople.51 The pope, assuming that the theological question should be resolved by a synod, or at least by written responses from Western bishops, required the removal of the edict.52 He was supported in this by all the Western bishops who had remained in Constantinople (such as Datius of Milan). Meanwhile the situation in the capital had become so tense that Vigilius and his followers left the palace of Galla Placidia and sought refuge in the church of Sts Peter and Paul. On 14 August 551, Vigilius drafted the excommunication of Theodore of Caesarea (whom he considered behind the emperor's policy), his followers, and also Menas of Constantinople and his bishops.53 For the time being, however, the pope held back his decree. The emperor dispatched soldiers to arrest him in the church. Vigilius clung to the altar columns and, when they tried to drag the old man away, the edifice burst and tumbling fragments nearly killed him. The pathetic scene aroused the sympathy of bystanders and the soldiers had to withdraw.54 The pope returned to the palace where he was now virtually a prisoner. Two days before Christmas 551, Vigilius escaped to Chalcedon where he found asylum in the church of St Euphemia, where

49 Victor of Tunnuna, chron. 551, 552, 555, 556 (MGH aa 11: 202-5); Victor himself, an ardent defender of the 'Three Chapters', suffered successive exiles in places as diverse as the Balearic isles and Alexandria. See Y. Moderan, 'Die Kirchen und die byzantinische R├╝ckeroberung'.

50 ACO 4.1: 198-9: The pope promised to denounce to the emperor all supporters of the Three Chapters; in turn the emperor pledged to defend the honour and the privileges of the see of Rome.

51 E. Schwartz, Drei dogmatische Schriften, 72-111.

52 Schwartz, Vigiliusbriefe, 2.f.

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