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political issues than the Italian leader and thus at times had more ecclesiastical power in the East. Even more upset than Rome by Constantinople's rise, Alexandria's bishops persisted in asserting their importance. Alexandria had a long Christian lineage, in legend beginning with Mark. It also had large political and economic importance, particularly as a major food source for the Eastern Mediterranean.

Theophilus of Alexandria Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria (sed. 385-412), did not think that canon 2 of Constantinople 381 fully applied to him. He was energetic and decisive. When John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, accepted the Tall Brothers -Egyptian Origenist monks, who along with Origen had been condemned by Theophilus at an Alexandrian council in 401 - Theophilus turned against John for meddling in his affairs. Sadly Chrysostom was an easy target since he had no taste for politics. His rigorous disciplines, which had weakened his health, ran counter to the lifestyles of elite Christians, whether they were bishops, laity, political leaders or even monks. He so alienated Theodosius Il's wife, the empress Eudokia, by occasionally referring to her as Jezebel rising again, that she vigorously supported all of Theophilus' efforts to makeJohn's hospitality to the Tall Brothers his final impolitic act.46 John was condemned by the synod of the Oak (403), held in a suburb of Chalcedon and attended by thirty-six to forty-five Egyptian church leaders and monks who were amenable to Theophilus' views. When the people of Constantinople heard that their beloved preacher had been exiled, they demanded that he be brought back. An earthquake and fire in the city seemed like divine support for their anger. But upon John's return he once more insulted Eudokia and was sent away again. The struggle ended with his exile to, and death in, Asia Minor.47 Thus two synods (i.e., local councils) held by Theophilus, one in his jurisdiction and one out of his jurisdiction, had shifted the balance of power and theology between the bishoprics of Constantinople and Alexandria.

Theophilus' activities within Egypt were momentous. Although he did not plan the destruction of the Sarapeum in Alexandria, a cultural disaster of stunning proportions since it included a grand library, Christians were responsible for the deed during his reign and may have reacted in response to his verbal attacks on pagans. Within the church he not only turned his attention against the Origenism of desert monasticism, but also built many

46 R. L. Wilken, John Chrysostom and the Jews, 97-127, 158-60, argues against John being a ruthless anti-Semite.

47 Kelly, Golden Mouth, 211-85.

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