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Ruspe at their head, composed a treatise upholding the Augustinian theory of election against the 'semi-Pelagians' of Gaul.48 It was in the same year at Junca in Byzacena that Liberatus, the primate of this region, induced his suffragans to award him rights that encroached on the prerogatives of Carthage. A new king eased the burdens of the Catholics, and bishops from the other African provinces met at Carthage in 525 to assist their primate Boniface in suppressing the usurpation.49 In 536, when the province had been re-conquered for Byzantium, the Catholic bishops addressed a letter from Carthage to Justinian, requesting that their property be restored and that their clergy be prevented from migrating to Italy, now that there was no tribulation to warrant such a flight.50

Synods in Gaul continued to deplore - and thereby prove that they were unable to curb - the rapacity and incontinence of the clergy. The sanctions of the Council of Agde (506)51 were reinforced at Orleans in 511 and at Epaon in 517.52 At the same time, the monasteries were urged not to contemn their dissolute bishops. Cloth and cowl could not afford to bicker under Arian, pagan or even Catholic despots, and the Council of Lyon (between 518 and 523) recommended the cloister as an asylum for priests who had failed to convert a hostile suzerain.53 The theology of Gaul was reconciled with that of Africa in 529, when a council at Orange,54 tacitly contradicting the decrees that Faustus of Riez had persuaded his colleagues to endorse at Arles (c. 470), denied that human beings can collude in their own salvation.

In Spain the Visigoths oppressed the Catholics, and a mere ten bishops met at Tarragona in 516 to prohibit the marriage of ecclesiastics above the order of subdeacon.55 The eight delegates who gathered at Toledo in the fifth year of King Amalaric (527) believed none the less that they spoke for the church at large in forbidding any delegation of clerical duties to the laity.56 It was a local council in Braga in 561 that pronounced the final condemnation of the Priscillianists, and another in 572 that dealt with problems of church

48 Hefele, Histoire des conciles, 11.2:1058.

49 CCSL 149: 255-81.

50 Hefele, Histoire des conciles, 11.2:1136-9.

51 For the canon enumerating degrees ofkinship which precluded marriage, see CCSL 148: 227.

52 Concilia Galliae511-695 (CCSL 148a: 1-37).

53 CCSL 148a: 39.

54 CCSL 148A: 59 and 63. On Faustus, see T. A. Smith, Degratia, 57-60, citing Faustus' Letters 1 and 2.

55 Martinez Diez and Rodriguez, La coleccion canonica, iv: 268-81; but for the date (later than that fixed by the putative editor, Isidore of Seville), see E. A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain, 33.

56 Letter of Montanus, in Martinez Diez and Rodriguez, La coleccion canonica, iv: 359.

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