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followed by a lengthy lead in to the sanctus, an institution narrative with echoes from the Didache (counted as canonical scripture in the Egyptian church), and an epiklesis of the Logos rather than the Spirit. It suggests a time when Logos and Spirit were interchangeable. There are also intercessions at the end ofthe eucharistic prayer. Another prayer has a heading that indicates the fraction, and there is also one for the laying on of hands after the communion, and one post-communion. Provision is made for prayers to be said at the laying on of hands for the ordination of deacons, presbyters and bishops. That for a deacon includes the petition:

Appoint also this person a deacon of your catholic Church and give to him a spirit of knowledge and discernment in order that he may be able to serve in this ministry in the midst of your holy people in purity and blamelessly, through your only-begotten Jesus Christ through whom be to you the glory and the power in holy Spirit both now and to all the ages of ages.12

Egypt was a great centre for monasticism. John Cassian, who lived in Scetis from 380 to 399, offers some details of monastic daily worship in his Institutes, even though the description was written some twenty years later in Gaul. There were two daily offices, one at cockcrow and one in the evening. Cassian mentions lessons, and the use of the Gloria patri at the end of the psalms.

Another monastic tradition was derived from the monk Pachomius, the Pachomian office. The regulations attributed to Horsiesos (c. 346) attest that themonksbeganbymakingthesignofthe cross. The office probably contained scriptural passages heard seated, a sign of the cross with all standing and the Lord's Prayer, penitential prayer said prostrated, and then standing to pray in silence. It also included chanted psalmody. What we see here is the distinction between what has become called the 'cathedral' or daily service in secular churches, and the 'monastic' office, the daily services said by monks. Whereas the former consisted of selected psalms for the time of the day, intercessions and hymns, the latter centred on the reading of scripture and the recitation of large chunks of psalmody.

Eastern worship at this time had an increasing emphasis on 'awe' and holiness, and at times some actions during the eucharist were carried out behind drawn curtains, hidden from the eyes of the laity. A variety of reasons have been suggested for this: a growing division between ordained and lay; the influx of pagans into the church and concern over worthiness and impurity; imitation of imperial court ritual, with the altar becoming as guarded as the

12 Text in ibid.

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