like Germia went over to the Christian cult of angels, but small numbers of pagans continued nevertheless to worship their angels there.28 Cults for the intercession of quasi-divine friends of Christ, including martyrs, Christian angels and the Old Testament patriarchs, came later. In the sixth century, non-Christian angels were still being invoked in amulets, and on boundary stones demarcating tilled fields, where the daemons thought to animate clouds full of hailstones were adjured to turn back from the sacred perimeter.29 There were some elements in pre-Christian culture that pagans and Christians alike rejected, among them magic practices condemned in the canons of Basil of Caesarea.30 The synod of Laodicea forbade bishops and ordinary clerics to be magicians, sorcerers or astrologers, and clergy were also forbidden to concoct amulets - metal apotropaic objects on which syncretistic formulae and the names of unknown angels were often inscribed.31 Their manufacture was tolerated only at recognised sites of Christian pilgrimage.

There were too few rural churches and ecclesiastical personnel to ensure that catechumens fully absorbed the teaching of uncompromising monotheism. Yet catechumens wishing to receive baptism were supposed to show a higher level of commitment by submitting to weekly instruction in the scriptures and canons. The synod of Laodicea established a system of sending out rural priests called periodeutai to assist these congregations.32 This replaced the earlier practice of installing bishops wherever there was a sizeable Christian community, whether in a city, village or rural estate. This was a product of the unsupervised movement of Christianity into the countryside. Orkistos in the territory of Nacolea in Phrygia was such a place. A rescript of the emperor Constantine the Great allowed it to secede from pagan Nacolea and granted it semi-independent, quasi-urban status.33

The framers of the canons of Laodicea were aware of convivial social relations between Christians and pagans. They forbade bishops, clerics, monks and laypersons from attending the baths, alluding to a law of Hadrian (regn. 117-36) that showed they were a source of reproach even among the pagans.34 Conventionally minded Christians naturally participated in civic, religious and family events with their pagan neighbours. Christians were required to eat their food

29 Recueil des inscriptions grecques-chretiennes d'Asie Mineure, ed. Gregoire, no. 341 ter and commentary

30 See below.

31 Council of Laodicea, canon 36.

34 Council of Laodicea, canon 30.

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