by conceding some ground to Miaphysite opposition without abrogating Chalcedon's Christological definition. In the autumn of 482, Emperor Zeno (regn. 474-91) addressed a letter to the Alexandrian church that proposed a compromise formula drafted by Acacius of Constantinople. This declaration (the so-called Henotikon, or 'Formula of Union') insisted on the unique authority of Nicaea's creed, anathematised Nestorius and Eutyches as heretics and canonised Cyril's third letter to Nestorius.31 On the basis of the Henotikon, Acacius sought to restore communion with the Miaphysite patriarch of Alexandria, Peter Mongus, and subsequently with the new Miaphysite bishop of Antioch, Peter the Fuller, when the latter had succeeded Calandion, who had been ousted from his see for defending the Chalcedonian definition. For Rome, however, Peter Mongus was a condemned heretic and an opponent of Chalcedonian faith and therefore such overtures were simply not acceptable. In July 484, a Roman synod chaired by Pope Felix III (sed. 483-92) deposed Peter Mongus as well as Acacius of Constantinople. A year later, a Roman synod excommunicated Peter of Antioch as well.32

Rome's resistance against the emperor's policy of enforced doctrinal compromise was sustained in the context of a deepening political divide between East and West. From 493, Theoderic, king of the Ostrogoths, established his court in Ravenna. Although he was officially subordinated to Constantinople, Ostrogothic kings ruled Italy for the next thirty years; their reign guaranteed political stability as well as a measure of prosperity and even some cultural flourishing. Although Theoderic wanted his rule to be recognised by the Eastern emperor, he did not care for too much influence of the imperial court in Italy. In Rome itself, the church and the senate disagreed on how best to deal with the schism: Pope Gelasius (sed. 492-6), the successor ofFelix, defended the Roman position rigorously and even requested that Acacius' name be deleted from the diptychs in the Eastern churches.33

Attitudes in Rome subsequently changed. In 497, the Roman princeps sena-tus, the patrician Festus, in company with two Italian bishops, led an embassy to the emperor.34 The delegation brought Theoderic's request to the emperor for official recognition as king, as well as a letter from Pope Anastasius (sed. 496-8) that noted his election and pleaded for Acacius' name no longer

31 E. Schwartz, Publizistische Sammlungen, I97f.- see further ch. 19.

32 See Collectio Veronensis 5, Collectio Berolinensis 26 (ed. Schwartz, Publizistische Sammlungen, 6-7, 76); Collectio Avellana 99, 70 (CSEL 35: 453.2-12,155-61); see further ibid., 207f.

33 Collectio Veronensis 12 (ed. Schwartz, Publizistische Sammlungen, 49-55); see further ibid.,

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