Amongthosewho hadbeenappointedtojudgeDioscoruswasTheodoret of Cyrrhus, an apologist for Nestorius deposed at the Latrocinium; Ibas of Edessa reaped the benefit of a subsequent decree that countermanded almost all the decisions reached on that occasion.44 Juvenal of Jerusalem retained his see, though not the sympathy of his congregation, by transferring his support from Dioscorus to the council (Zacharias Rhetor, Church history 3.3). The Egyptians appointed Timothy Aelurus as successor to Dioscorus in 454, but, even when he had frankly abandoned Eutyches, his fellowbishops urged that his appointment was invalid. He was exiled in 458, but restored by the usurper Basiliscus after a third council in Ephesus in 475.45 Soon after, Basiliscus was deposed, the Asiatic bishops repented of their presence at this council, and Alexandria was once again marooned (Evagrius, Church history 3.9). The Christology of Nestorius could be banished but not suppressed, and a council held in Persia by his sympathisers (one of the first to take place outside the empire) established the independence of a new and long-lived church.46 Pope Leo accepted and defended the dogmatic position of the Council of Chalcedon; he objected, however, to canon 28, which, by according second place to Constantinople at future councils, seemed to hint that Rome held primacy only so long as she was the capital of the empire, and not through her inalienable status as the apostolic see.47

The Western kingdoms after the fall of Rome

Rome was no longer mistress of the world, though Leo hardly seemed to know it and the papacy grew tall by the amputation of its rivals. The Vandal kings of Africa set out to repress the Catholics who kept up a dangerous intercourse with other remnants of the dissolving empire. In 484, King Huneric, having brokered a debate between the Catholics and the 'Arians' at Carthage, put the force of law behind the Homoian creed which had been framed, he said, by a thousand saints at Rimini and Seleucia (Victor of Vita, Vandal persecution 3.5). The hostility of the government could be propitious to theological reflection, as in 523, when a group of exiled prelates in Sardinia, with Fulgentius of

44 See H.-M. Diepen, Les Trois Chapitres, 75-98.

45 W H. C. Frend, Monophysite movement, 154-5, 159-61,170-2.

46 On the Council of Seleucia, see the Armenian historian Sebeus, Histoire d'Heraclius, trans. and ed. Macler (Paris 1904), 113. For a general introduction to this church, see now Wilhelm Baum and Dietmar Winkler, The apostolic church of the East.

47 A. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian tradition, 11.2:120-49.

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