however, had its dangers. The shift has not always been viewed as for the best, not least by those Christians in this period who were attacked by emperor or council. The persecuted who later ruled often proved to have sadly short memories and persecuted those who had no power. Christians have seldom felt strong apprehension about using force to get their will. The empowerment of specific Christian groups frequently resulted in other Christian groups being disenfranchised and, in some cases, vulnerable to non-Christians. The East Syrian church, driven out of the empire, suffered greatly at the hands of Persians, who thought of Christians as a fifth column. On other occasions, inter-Christian rivalry in effect drove the relatively powerless Christian faction into the arms of non-Christian forces. Justinianic Christianity had so alienated the anti-Chalcedonians and others whom they considered heretics that many Christians in the Middle East at first welcomed the invading Muslims as liberators. The Great Church has given many good gifts, but it has also asked for and received much disdain for glorying in establishment.


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