pre-existing material. Probably dating from the time of Julian, Section D of the frieze may represent the emperor himself (a man of average height in military garb), his father (a somewhat taller man wearing a mantle that resembles a toga) and his grandfather the deified Constantius I.40 It is one of the latest examples of pre-Christian religious art to have survived in Asia Minor.

The correspondence of Basil, archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (370-9), reflects relations between pagan and Christian communities in a late fourth-century urban setting. As a Christian Hellenist Basil authored the protreptic essay 'Advice to young men on how to derive profit from Hellenic literature', a work designed to protect students from the subversive content of pagan Greek literature. His remarks dealt particularly with Homer, whose poetry had become the scripture of pagan Greek theology, and who with Plato is the most frequently cited author in Basil's correspondence.41 Basil's letters contain many classical allusions. He refers to the Odyssey in a letter to Antipater, governor of Cappadocia, in 374 and uses the adjective kourotrophos ('fostering mother') - an epithet of Artemis and Hekate, divinities still worshipped in late fourth-century Asia Minor.42 Other writers and works likely referred to include the poet Simonides, Aesop, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Euripides, Herodotus, Theophrastus, Diogenes Laertius' lives ofthe philosophers, and late Hellenistic moralists like Plutarch.43 Most ofthe letters containing allusions to the paideia were addressed to pagan and Christian public officials, not clergy.44

Basil's theological correspondence gives the impression of Christian cultural and demographic dominance in Cappadocia, but this is deceptive. Chorepiskopoi, or rural presbyters, are often mentioned, suggesting that there were not enough Christian village congregations to justify building churches and installing presbyters and deacons.45 Basil complains that the chorepiskopoi were not effective in enforcing 'the canons of the Fathers'.46 He once visited

40 R. Fleischer, 'Der Fries des Hadrianstempels in Ephesos', 23-71. The author of this study does not commit himself to these identifications. The figures in question are D8, D9 and D12, pp. 31-4 and plate 17.1 take the deified figure to be divus Constantius I. He stands next to a figure that seems to be Hercules, the tutelary divinity of Constantius I's branch ofthe Tetrarchy I take the figure in military garb to be Julian (D12) - who distinguished himself as a military commander in Gaul. He is surrounded by the female divinities Athena, Aphrodite and Hekate. Julian doubtless held Athena in special reverence as the philosopher goddess, and Hekate through the influence of the theurgist Maximus of Ephesus. These opinions are provisional. For fuller discussion, see F. R. Trombley 'The imperial cult' (forthcoming).

45 Inscriptions: Harper, 'Tituli Comanorum Cappadociae', no. 8.06.

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