• The Peace, and, in Rome, the fermentum at this point in the Titula Stational churches.

• Brief prayer and dismissal.

Little is known about Roman daily prayers used in cathedrals. Much more is known of monastic prayers, their form derived from the 'cathedral' form, especially in the sixth-century Rule of St Benedict. Some suggest that the 'cathedral' form for Morning Prayer consisted of Psalms 50, 62 and 66, with a Gospel canticle, prayers, Lord's Prayer and collect. According to the Rule of Benedict 13, it consisted of Psalm 66, Psalm 50, two variable psalms, a canticle, a Bible reading, responsory (a chant usually of scripture verses), hymn, Gospel canticle, litany and Lord's Prayer. In Vespers the older cathedral form seems to have had six psalms that were later reduced to five and then four in Benedict's Rule. In the latter we find a service for the monks consisting of four psalms, a lesson, a responsory, a hymn, versicle (a short sentence, often from the Psalms, spoken or sung antiphonally), Gospel canticle, litany, Lord's Prayer and dismissal (Rule 17,18).

In Spain and Gaul the baptismal rites varied, and in some places echoed Milan with a foot washing and a single post-baptismal anointing by the presbyter with laying on of hands. In other places rite and practice were rather like those of Rome. The eucharistic rite seems to have had three lections - one from the Old Testament, as well as an epistle or a reading from Acts (called 'The Apostle') and Gospel. It seems thattheBenedicite was commonly sungbetween the epistle and Gospel. Prayers for the people followed, with dismissal of the catechumens. The eucharistic prayers in both Spain and Gaul are notable for the fact that apart from the sursum corda, sanctus and benedictus, and institution narrative they are entirely variable according to the day or feast day.

The forms of daily prayer in Spain can be gleaned from Isidore of Seville (made bishop c. 600) and the canons of various councils. The content of Vespers resembles that described by Egeria in fourth-century Jerusalem. Information for the monastic office in Gaul is provided by Cassian, and for Spain by Isidore in his Rule for monks, written between 590 and 600. As elsewhere, the monastic office adds scripture reading, and sometimes additional psalms.

The liturgical year

Christians assembled on the Lord's Day, which seemingly established itself quickly as the weekly worship day. In addition the Didache mentioned fasting

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