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it was only the henads which were caused by the One that were one-relative-to-many, so that the One itself was entirely beyond such relativity.80

IV The theurgical attainment of fulfilment Having denied the possibility of attainment of fulfilment through introversion, and having so multiplied the ontological hierarchy that human beings were removed from the uppermost principles by several ontological stages, the Iamblichean tradition proceeded to affirm that human fulfilment was still to be identified with attainment of the uppermost principles, and that such attainment was effected through pagan ritual, understood as theurgy (Osoupyia).81

a. The triadic analysis of reality The principle which grounded this understanding of fulfilment through theurgy was the principle that being was fundamentally triadic. For the Iamblichean tradition, reality was a triadic circuit stretching from the remaining (mono) of a monad (monas) through procession (proodos) to a multiplicity (plethos) to the reversion (epistrophei) of that multiplicity back to its monadic source.82

Thus, according to the Iamblichean tradition, beings which come from a cause (i.e., metechonta which participate in the metechomena of an amethekton) do not merely proceed from the cause; they also revert back to that cause, by which reversion they attain to their good.83 In an absolute sense, this meant that all being proceeded from the One which remained, and then reverted back to the One.84 But it held in general for each and every series. It was true for each and every series in that the multiplicity of members of the series proceeded from the monad from which they came, and then reverted back to that monad.85 It held also for each and every being: any particular being participated in the effects of a monad, and was said to 'remain' (menein) in that monad insofar as it was identical in character to the monad; it was said to 'proceed' (proeinai) from the monad insofar as it differed from the monad; and it was said to 'revert' (epistrephein) back to the monad insofar as it turned back to it as its source.86 Thus both series of beings and individual beings in

81 On the term Oeoupyia, see Hans Lewy, Chaldaean oracles and theurgy, 461-6; E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the irrational, 283-311.

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