circumspectly at weddings, many of which would have been celebrated in the houses of pagan families, and to avoid wild leaping and dancing.35 This was perhaps an overreaction to liturgical dance in pagan cult, particularly the frenzied enthusiasm that accompanied the rites of Dionysus and Cybele.36

The pagan city councillors of Asia Minor greeted Julian's rise to sole power in November 36i with great enthusiasm, as a dedicatory inscription of the imperial cult at Pergamum reveals.37 Although the institutional fabric of pagan temples was weakened, it had not been extinguished. One of Julian's letters c. 354 praises Pegasius, Christian bishop of Alexandria Troas, who guided him through the shrines ofthe heroes from the Trojan War. Julian found the temples intact and sacrifices still being performed, with Pegasius' tacit approval. The bishop spoke partly out of local patriotism, partly out of enthusiasm for Homer and the Greek paideia. He may have accepted baptism and joined the clergy in the reign of Constantius II to avoid the financial burdens that fell on city councillors, all the while retaining a sense of Hellenic piety.38 The story that Pegasius performed sacrifice may be put down to the slander of his enemies. Another letter of Julian to Arsacius, high priest of the temenos of Cybele at Pessinus, sets forth the criteria for priestly behaviour and the management of the goddess's finances, with a view to increasing the appeal of the 'church' of Cybele to pagans and Christians alike. Sacrifices had recently begun again, after the traditional first-fruit offerings had lapsed with the demise of the emperor Licinius in 324. Julian now commanded priests and temple wardens to extend hospitality to travellers and to look after their cemeteries, just as the Christians did. Priests were also supposed to observe the same high standards of morality as Christian presbyters and bishops. Julian offered the income of the imperial estates to pay the salaries of the priests of Cybele who worked at other trades, in order to give the temples a full-time 'clergy'. He even promised additional monies 'if the entire people should once again become suppliants of the Mother of the Gods'.39 His aim was to roll back adherence to Christianity by the pagan priesthood setting a good example. His concern for the pagan villages of Galatia reflects the slow progress of Christianity in some rural districts.

The temple of Hadrian at Ephesus was repaired after an earthquake, possibly that of 358, and a new frieze was incorporated into its interior, making use of

36 Trombley 'Christianisation of rite', 63f.

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