anathematised do not necessarily belong to the council of 553, nor do they self-evidently represent Origen's own thinking; they do, however, owe their form and structure to Evagrius.98

Another earlier author whose name figures prominently in the sixth-century debates is Didymus the Blind (313-98), who from early childhood was unable to see, but was nevertheless a prolific theologian who dictated numerous works and was also appointed by Athanasius to head the Alexandrian catechetical school. He was a renowned teacher, and people like Rufinus, Jerome and perhaps Gregory Nazianzen came to Alexandria to consult him. Not much is left of his substantial corpus, since he was denounced by name along with Origen and Evagrius by anti-Origenists. Since so few of his writings survive, it is difficult to know precisely what they found so objectionable about him. Didymus' writings may have included a detailed study of the Trinity and an attack on Eunomius.99 He clearly strove to demonstrate that Origen's Trinitarian thought was acceptable. Jerome's translation of his On the Holy Spirit was the only extant work until 1941, when workmen discovered a cache of papyri codices while clearing rock-quarries in Toura (sixteen kilometres south of Cairo). The Toura papyri included evidence for Didymus' commentaries on Job, Zechariah and Genesis.100 His allegorical approach to scriptural interpretation probably contributed to his ultimate rejection by opponents of Origenism in the sixth century.

The 'Three Chapters'

The other burning issue of the day was the on-going dispute over Christol-ogy after Chalcedon. Justinian hoped to win the support of Egyptian church authorities, certainly for political reasons and probably for some theological ones, by clearly distancing the Chalcedonian party from any association with Nestorian Dyophysitism. In 538, he condemned the person and work of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428), Theodoret of Cyrrhus' (d. 460) writings against Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444) and a letter from Ibas of Edessa (d. 457) to Maris, bishop of Persia, in which Ibas praised Nestorius. (The condemned writings are known collectively as the 'Three Chapters'.) Justinian thought some specific Christological developments suggested by Scythian monks and Palestinian theologians opened up a practical way to resolve the conflicts

98 G. Bunge, Evagrius Pontikos; E. Clark, The Origenist controversy; A. Casiday, Evagrius Ponticus.

99 B. Kramer, 'Didymos von Alexandrien'; R. Layton, Didymus the Blind and his circle.

100 Didymus, On Zachariah (SC 83-5); On Genesis (SC 233-44); commentaries on Ezekiel and Psalms 20-44 were also discovered at Toura, but their authorship is disputed.

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