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second century. The collector used earlier material. Since the amalgamation of sources results in contradictory usages, it is unlikely that it all represented contemporary liturgical practice.4 In part the piece seems to show how earlier traditions vindicated the present usage, and Christology, of his community; perhaps there is also a nostalgic element. As with the editor(s) of the Apostolic tradition, this and other church orders (e.g., the Testamentum Domini in Syria) reveal compilers who looked back to what they perceived as continuity with an earlier era.

Although the liturgical rites of this period have a great deal in common, there are important regional differences.

Jerusalem and Antioch

In addition to the travelogue of Egeria, some idea of worship in Jerusalem is given in the homilies of Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem (sed. 349-87). We have a protocatechesis and eighteen pre-baptismal catechetical lectures by him, together with five mystagogical, or post-baptismal, homilies (these latter are sometimes attributed to his successor, John).

By the time Cyril served, the city had been re-built in splendid style by Constantine, who constructed buildings over the traditional places of Jesus' passion, death and resurrection. This meant that ceremonies could be given a dramatic celebration, linking them with their appropriate historical location. Worship thus took on a 'rememorative' dimension. Pilgrims coming to Jerusalem took news of these ceremonies back home where their communities adapted them.

Baptism was a staged rite. According to Egeria, those catechumens wishing to be baptised had to submit their names before Lent. They assembled in the Martyrium with their sponsors for examination and enrolment. Throughout Lent the candidates received exorcisms and catechesis - though the length and number of these is uncertain.5 At the Paschal Vigil they were baptised - probably in the baths behind the Anastasis - and then brought to the Martyrium. After Easter they received further instruction. We can thus see the pattern that anthropologists explain as separation, liminality ('in between') and then aggregation (baptised as members of the church).

4 The Didache (c. 80) and the Didascalia (c. 230); he drew on what appears to be Greek versions of synagogue prayers; and he selected from the material found in some of the Apostolic tradition documents. He also authored themes himself, or borrowed from sources that have not survived outside the collection.

5 Alexis James Doval, Cyril of Jerusalem, mystagogue.

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