of the Spirit to Father and Son as an object of honour and worship. Apart from the development of the confession of the Spirit, there are various discrepancies between the creeds of Nicaea and Constantinople that tend to support the theory of an intermediary creedal formula redacted by Constantinople. Among these discrepancies, we can note two of some significance: the omission of the Nicene anathema against those who speak of the Son as another 'hypostasis' from the Father, reflecting the terminological rapprochement achieved by the Council of Alexandria of 362, and the addition of the statement that Christ's kingdom will not end. The latter addition was inserted as a rebuttal of what was considered to be the doctrine of Marcellus, that the expansion of the divine activity from monad to triad would be eschatologically retracted into the monad, and thus the kingdom of Christ would be re-enfolded into the kingdom of the Father.

The Cappadocian and Augustinian syntheses

The creed of Constantinople constituted the decisive moment in the reception of the Council of Nicaea. But this reception involved certain clarifications and re-interpretations that amounted to a much more conceptually developed account of the church's Trinitarian faith than had been possible at Nicaea. In the East, such an account is given expression by the Cappadocian theologians: Basil of Caesarea, his brother Gregory of Nyssa, and their friend Gregory of Nazianzus. Although the theological visions of these three are not homogenous, there are enough overlapping emphases to warrant speaking of a Cap-padocian synthesis'. In the West, Augustine incorporated the results of the debates surrounding the Council of Nicaea into an original synthesis that was to be hugely influential in the Western tradition.

The Cappadocian synthesis is best seen as a response to the anti-Nicene developments that began in the 350s, spearheaded by Aetius and Eunomius. As we have seen, the fundamental principle of this theology was that the name of' unbegotten' or 'ingenerate' (agennetos) is disclosive of the divine essence. Much of Cappadocian Trinitarian thought is intelligible as an attempt to deal with this premise on two fronts: first, by asserting that knowledge of the divine essence is attainable only indirectly, by experience of the divine operations rather than by a direct intellectual circumspection of the divine nature; and, second, by clarifyingthat the term agennetos is indicative ofthe order of relations within God and not of the divine essence.

The first issue broaches the question of theological epistemology, the

Cappadocian version of which contains a strong emphasis on divine

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