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of Palestinian and Chalcedonian positions during two synods there in 532 and

536. Although we know almost nothing of his background, we can conjecture that he was probably well educated and that he was familiar with the works of Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia. After 536, he went back to Palestine for a time but returned to Constantinople in 540. While in the city, he lived as a hermit attached to the monastery of the Akoimetoi, or the 'Sleepless Ones', who were solidly supporters of Chalcedonian Christology. Leontius was a creative theologian who claimed that the unity in Jesus Christ is by a 'hypostasis' (enhypostasis) that included two natures. His primary work was Libri III contra Nestorianos et Eutychianos (543-4). Leontius was also connected with sixth-century Origenism, which is a topic to which we shall return.92

The emperor Justinian The long reign of the emperor Justinian (regn. 527-65) was marked by developments that deeply affected the church. As his armies won backlarge portions of the former empire and pushed its borders to new lengths by recovering North Africa and Italy as well as conquering various peoples along the Danube,93 he constructed many churches in the newly conquered territories and in the older regions. In doing so, he extended the establishment of Christianity even beyond the accomplishments of Theodosius II.

His law code, revised and then published in 529, attempted to remove perceived inconsistencies in the Theodosian Code. Justinian's Code also included other novellas, a digest of commentaries, legal textbooks, and the institutes made up of works from Gaius and others. It became a standard for the development of canon law in the West throughout the medieval period. It also set the foundation for the Byzantine pattern of church-state relationships. They were not totally independent powers, but were intended to work together, the state overseeing human affairs and the church directing spiritual needs. Caesaropapism was a poor interpretation of the interplay.94

Another remarkable and enduring legacy from Justinian was Hagia Sophia, the magnificent cathedral that he had built in Constantinople between 532 and

537. It replaced Constantine's church of the same name, which had burned in the Nika revolt of 532. This massive structure, 68 by 76m with a height of

92 GrillmeierwithHainthaler, Christin Christian tradition 11.2:181-229; M. Gockel, 'Adubious Christological formula?'; B. Daley, 'A richerunion'; B. Daley, 'The Origenism of Leontius ofByzantium'.

93 A. D. Lee, 'The empire at war'; see also W. Pohl, 'Justinian and the barbarian kingdoms' and G. Greatrex, 'Byzantium and the East in the sixth century'. The latter focuses more on the Persian Wars.

94 See chapter 17, below.

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