the forty-five speeches of Gregory of Nazianzus in particular. These are the judicial (or forensic), which was intended to sway the mind of the listener, and the deliberative, which aimed to teach.76 A sub-category of epideictic was the panegyric, a speech in praise of someone recently deceased. Gregory of Nazianzus' Or. 43, a panegyric for his friend Basil of Caesarea,77 is of particular interest for the information it gives concerning Basil's education in Caesarea, Constantinople and then at Athens, where he met his fellow student Gregory. Gregory cannot hide his reverence for Athens ('a city truly of gold and the provider of all that is fine'). However, his ambivalence is revealed when he then immediately turns to criticise the futility ofthe education they received there.78 In Constantinople, on the other hand, 'classical elitism had been overcome by the Christian faith'.79 It was in Constantinople that John Chrysostom delivered a series of orations against the Jews, ones that typify the anti-Semitic stance of Christians in this period.


This genre, which was original to Christian authors, will be dealt with only briefly. Florilegia were collections of proof texts from patristic authorities to demonstrate the orthodoxy of one side or the other in a theological controversy. While classical florilegia ofphilosophical texts were known in earlier centuries, and proved an important resource for writers like Clement of Alexandria whose access to the original full texts was limited,80 the use of such collections to demonstrate a theological point began with Theodoret. In his Eranistes (c. 447), written in the form of a dialogue between an Orthodox speaker and the heretic Eranistes, he provides a 'bouquet' of quotations disproving the doctrine of one nature in Christ (called 'Miaphysitism,' or, polemically, 'Monophysitism') that was imputed to his opponents at the 'Robber' Council at Ephesus and at Chalcedon. After the Council of Chalcedon, Theodoret also compiled the Haereticarumfabularum compendium, to combat the major heresies

76 Celia Milovanovic, 'Sailing to Sophistopolis'; Milovanovic argues (232) that 'many of Gregory's orations are semi-fictitious speeches of a forensic and deliberative kind. As such, they follow the well-established tradition of Greek declamation and are closely related to the procedures of Aelius Aristides, who in turn was lookingback toward Plato as a literary model.'

77 In Discours funèbres en l'honneur de son frère Césaire et de Basile de Césarée, ed. Boulenger.

78 Lemerle, Byzantine humanism, 48 n. 11.

79 Or. 42.11; cited by Pelikan, Christianity and classical culture, 172.

80 In his introduction to the edition of Clement of Alexandria's Paedagogus (SC 70: 6673), Henri-Irénée Marrou concluded that the only authors whom we can be sure that Clement had studied in the original text were Homer and Plato.

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