so that visitors collected oil, earth, water, dust or a rock from the place. Chrysostom catalogues these devotions in one sermon delivered at a martyr's festival:

Stay beside the tomb of the martyr; there pour out fountains of tears. Have a contrite mind; raise a blessing from the tomb. Take her as an advocate in your prayers and immerse yourself perpetually in the stories of his struggles. Embrace the coffin, nail yourself to the chest. Not just the martyrs' bones, but even their tombs and chests brim with a great deal of blessing. Take holy oil and anoint your whole body - your tongue, your lips, your neck, your eyes.24

Visitors had many ways to 'raise a blessing' from a saint's tomb. A spoon from Egypt with the words phage mana (eat manna) bears strong connections to the tomb of John the Evangelist in Ephesus, which emitted a miraculous dust. As the sixth-century bishop Gregory of Tours describes the end of John's life, the evangelist 'descended into a tomb while he was still alive and ordered that he be covered in the ground. Still today his tomb produces manna with the appearance of flour; blessed relics of this manna are sent throughout the entire world and perform cures for ill people.' According to Gregory, the tomb of the apostle Andrew also overflows with a similar manna and fragrant oil every year on the saint's feast day. The quantity of the oil was thought to predict the fate of that year's crops. Beyond its agricultural worth, the oil was convertedto 'salves andpotions' providing 'great reliefto illpeople'.25 Eulogiae, as these contact relics were called, took many forms. Dirt or rocks from the holy place were carried home such that the saint's power emanated from the shrine back to the home. At the church of St Stephen outside Jerusalem, oil or water could be poured into reliquaries equipped with funnels. After the liquid came in contact with the relics, it was collected in a basin beneath the reliquary and then distributed to pilgrims.26 The power of relics to infuse other matter, whether cloth, stone, liquid or even skin, is evident in the cult of martyrs in Tours, where the relics' unlimited division and portability showed no weakening of their powers to cure and instruct the laity or sanctify distant places.

In addition to the eulogiae carried home from the shrine, pilgrims sought access to the saint's powers by other means. They requested the saint's protection and assistance in graffiti they left on walls and various portable objects,

24 Chrysostom, A homily on martyrs' (PG 550: 661-6, esp. 664); trans. Mayer and Allen, 96.

25 Gregory of Tours, Glory of the martyrs 29-30 (trans. van Dam, 47-9); the spoon is discussed in Papaconstantinou, Le culte des saints en ¡Egypte, 351.

26 P. Donceel-Voûte, 'Le role des reliquaires dans les pèlerinages', 191-2.

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