Ephesus 431

Theodosius took the appeal seriously and with his co-emperor Valentinian III and Pope Celestine I he called a council to meet at Ephesus in 431. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria (412-44), was furious at Nestorius and exchanged letters with him; one letter included his twelve anathemas against the bishop of Constantinople.51 He came to Ephesus with his minions well before the arrival of the Roman legates or the Antiochene contingent, who had been delayed by floods. Assisted by Memnon, bishop of Ephesus, Cyril began proceedings against Nestorius. When the Western representatives arrived, they agreed with the decisions since the Roman synod had already condemned Nestorius. As a result, Nestorius was condemned and deposed. The documents from that council included Cyril's second letter to Nestorius, Nestorius' response and the creed of Nicaea (325). Cyril's third epistle, which closes with twelve anathemas against Nestorius' teachings, was included as well.

By the time John of Antioch (d. 441) reached the city with his supporters, he had been excommunicated and those who followed him lay under a similar threat. These West Syrians set up their own council and excommunicated both Cyril and Memnon.52 Cyril and John were eventually reconciled, however, in 433. Theodoret of Cyrrhus and John drafted the union statement about 'Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, perfect God and perfect man of rational soul and body' and Cyril endorsed the statement. That agreement meant that Cyril could be seen either as one who accepted a phrase from Apollinaris concerning 'one nature of the incarnate Logos' that reached him in a forgery under Athanasius' name, or as one who proclaimed the full humanity in

50 N. Constas, Proclus of Constantinople.

51 J. McGuckin, St. Cyril of Alexandria; S. Wessel, Cyril of Alexandria and the Nestorian controversy; F. McLeod, The roles of Christ's humanity in salvation, 226-66.

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