Constantinople 381

Neither the council at Nicaea, nor the deaths of Arius or of Athanasius (373), established the predominance of one of these embattled groups. The conflict lasted much longer. Almost sixty years elapsed before the majority of Christians in the empire held to an anti-Arian stance.

The two emperors Gratian and Theodosius I called a council in Constantinople (381) to discuss a series of issues. A hundred and fifty Eastern bishops attended, including some Armenians, but the Pneumatomachian party, those who fought against the divinity of the Spirit, had left the gathering before the official sessions began. Meletius of Antioch was made the president of the council, in order to reinforce his claims to being the proper bishop of that city. (Fervently supported by Basil of Caesarea, his position had not been fully acknowledged by Alexandria and denied by Rome.) Followers of the former Nicene bishop Eustathius, deposed in 326 by Arians, contested Meletius' place and put forth Paulinus as their bishop.

39 Epiphanius, The Panarion, trans. Williams; L'Heresiologie chez Epiphanius, trans. Pourkier;

A. Louth, 'Palestine: Cyril of Jerusalem and Epiphanius'.

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